Ethical Principles in Business
A Coggle Diagram about Kant and Moral Rights
, Theory of the rule utilitarian
- An action is right from an ethical point of view if and only if the action would be required by those moral rules that are correct.
- A moral rule is correct if and only if the sum total of utilities produced if everyone were to follow that rule is greater than the sum total utilities produced if everyone were to follow some alternative rule.
, Cost-benefit analysis first quantifies in monetary terms and then compares the direct and indirect costs and benefits of program alternatives for meeting a specified objective.
, Problems with the utilitarian reliance on measurement
- Comparative measures of the values things have for different people cannot be made.
- Some benefits and costs are impossible to measure.
- The potential benefits and costs of an action cannot always be reliably predicted, so they are not adequately measurable.
- It is unclear exactly what counts as a benefit or a cost. People see these things in different ways.
- Utilitarian measurement implies that all goods can be traded for equivalents of each other. However, not everything has a monetary equivalent.
, Criticisms of Utilitarianism
Critics say utilitarianism fails with rights and justice.
Critics say not all values can be measured.
, Rule Utilitarianism
Instead of looking at individual acts to see whether they produce more pleasure than the alternatives, one looks only at moral rules at actions of a particular type.
, Traditional Utilitarianism assumes that we can measure and add the quantities of benefits produced by an action and subtract the measured quantities of harm
, The concept of Right = an individual’s entitlement to something.
Legal right = An entitlement that derives from a legal system that permits or empowers a person to act in a specified way or that requires others to act in certain ways toward that person.
Moral (or human) rights = rights that all human beings everywhere possess to an equal extent simply by virtue of being human beings.
, Three Kinds of Moral Rights
Negative rights require others leave us alone.Positive rights require others help us.Contractual or special rights require others keep their agreements.
, Utilitarianism is a doctrine that assesses good and evil in terms of the consequences of actions
, To determine moral right and wrong:
Universalizability means the person's reasons for acting must be reasons that everyone could act on at least in principle.Reversibility means the person's reasons for acting must be reasons that he or she would be willing to have all others use, even as a basis of how they treat him or her.
, Libertarian Philosophy
Freedom from human constraint is necessarily good and that all constraints imposed by others are necessarily evil except when needed to prevent the imposition of greater human constraints.
, Act utilitarianism assesses each separate act according to whether it maximizes pleasure over pain.
and Moral virtue is an acquired disposition that is a valuable part of a morally good person, exhibited in the person's habitual behavior.