A Coggle Diagram about Types of sources
(Use of sources is related to the different approaches to the past:
, Source criticism (Gilbert Garraghan)
- When was the source, written or unwritten, produced? (date)
- Where was it produced? (localization)
- By whom was it produced? (authorship)
- From what pre-existing material was it produced? (analysis)
- In what original form was it produced? (integrity)
- What is the evidential value of its contents? (credibility) -> only internal source
, Primary sources
-> from the ‘first hand’. Close to the res gestae, such as direct eyewitness reports, registrations of names in population registers, photographs, films.
, Secondary sources
-> from the ‘second hand’, the historia rerum gestarum, such as historical accounts, research studies, monographs, biographies
, Conscious sources:
the deliberate goal to transmit information to contemporaries or later generations with a view to the future (diaries, memoirs, newspaper articles, photos and movies)
-> can be very unreliable
, Unconscious or indirect sources:
written and material remains in the practical administration as a form of registration in daily life (wedding baptism & death registers; criminal records, address books; membership lists of associations)
and Historical method
-> the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.
), Professionalization of history
, History as a science
(Deadly sins of history science
, When did it start?
, Historism: a philosophical and historiographical theory (founded in the 19th century)
, External features: Infrastructure like education, associations and journals. Group of professional historians. Jargon like concepts of theories. Specialism
and Substantive characteristics:
Facts presented in a coherent narrative. Evidence like sources and methods. Logic of arguments. Multiperspectivity. Independence and impartiality. Debate and dialogue.
), The 5 aspirations to study history:
, Historical consciousness:
, The four historiographic approaches
, Relevance of history
(Explaining changes and processes in the world historically (making sense of the past) (changing and continuities)
, Understanding identity constructions (collective identities) (your own identity, your own position in the world related to others).
and Enhancing historical consciousness (schools, museums, public debate). (important because, especially the third one, politicians etc. use historian arguments). (Historians are trade to investigate those arguments).
), Past and History
(History: The processing and interpretation of traces of the past into a readable and verifiable story.
Heeft een dubbele betekenis:
and Past: Alles wat er in het verleden gebeurt is.
), Why study history?
), Historical facts: statements about historical events which have been determined intersubjectively