Developing American Identity 1820-1880 (Abolitionist Movement (This…
Developing American Identity 1820-1880
This movement was the a movement started with the sole purpose of ending slavery. It was started the by the revival of religious spirit caused by the Second Great Awakening.
In 1833, William Floyd Garrison founded the American Antislavery Society, and burned the constitution publicly to advocate for the rights of slaves say that the document was pro slavery.
Other notable black abolitionists are Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth, who were both born into slavery and fought against it and for the freedom of slaves in their adulthood.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were one of the first women to ever support the abolitionist movement alongside with women's suffrage. They event went as far to compare both of their lifestyle and label them as similar
Fredrick Douglas was a black abolitionist who wrote an autobiography, exposing the cruelty and horrors of slavery to all of America. He founded the Abolitionist Newspaper, The North Star.
This reform started in the Jacksonian era and wanted to establish free public schools for all children. This was supported by the fear the the future generation would not be successful.
Educational reformers also wanted children to learn moral principles. McGuffey created a series of elementary textbooks the taught reading and morality. It highlighted hard work, punctuality, and sobriety.
Horace Mann was the leading advocate for common public schools. Worked for compulsory attendance for all children, a longer school year, and increased teacher prep. This spread to all states.
Religious enthusiasm of Second Great Awakening helped fuel the growth of private colleges. From the 1830s, Protestant denominations founded small denominational colleges. At this time, some colleges started accepting women.
In the early 19th century, the Cult of Domesticity believed that women should stay at home at home and not work, acting as a refuge for their husbands and a caretaker for the children
In the 1830s-1940s, the womens right movement took a big jump in advance with it all starting with the Seneca Falls statement.
Not only were women subjugated in normal society, but also recieved this unfair treatment in religion, specifically in the Mormons, where women were subjugated, heavily persecuted, and never put equally alongside men
After the Second Great Awakening, new ideas came, that gave women more status and purpose, leading to new social reforms and movements for gaining new rights that they did not have before.
Along with the women's rights movement came other things, like suffrage for women, which they have never had until this point in history, or the Grimke Sisters, who compared the living of women to the lifestyle of a slave.
During early 1800s, religious revivals swept through the US as a reaction against the rationalism of the Enlightenment and American Revolution.
Calvinism (Puritan) counterattacked liberal views in the 1790s. The Second Great Awakening begane amongst the educated and inspired a generation of young men to become preachers. These occurred from the democratization of American society.
In New York, the sermons appealed to the people's emotions and fear of damnation. 1000's publicly declared their revived faith. Ideas strong amongst middle class.
Much of the religious enthusiasm came from belief that the world would end with the second coming. Millerites continued as a new denomination: the Seventh-Day Adventists.
In the South, Baptist and Methodist circuit preachers traveled, attracting 1000s to outdoor revivals or camp meetings. The preachers activated the faith of many people who never went to church. Baptists and Methodists became largest Protestant denominations by 1850
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) was based of the Book of Mormon, which connected American Indians to Israel tribes. Kept moving from state to state until they settled in Utah. They allowed for polygamy.
Temperance was an organized effort to encourage moderation in drinking alcohol or completely banning it all together. It mainly impacted women and children, since they were the victims of alcohol usage.
The American Temperance Society in Boston, Massachusetts was made up of members who had taken a pledge to abstain from alcohol consumption. This was the first US social movement organization to mobilize massive and national support for a specific reform cause.
Alcohol was blamed for many of society's issues, including severe health, poverty, and crime. Temperance was held to b vital to society in Hellenic culture, and considered central to Christian behavior.
The Second Great Awakening was also what caused the large increase in support for the temperance movement, as it changed the morals of society, leading them to want change in their society for the better, to benefit everyone.
Two temperance movement advocates were Sylvester Graham and Amelia Boomer. Both of these two emphasized the importance of abstaining from alcohol and expressed their views in various methods, like a monthly paper or public speeches. They also supported other causes, like the abolitionist movement and the women's rights movement.