Developing American Identity 1820-1860 (Women (Still treated as second…
Developing American Identity 1820-1860
Still treated as second class citizens in America, began to realize that they were limited. They were aware of their rights and began to seek autonomy.
Seneca Falls convention, organized by Elizabeth Stanton when male abolitionists refused to give them seats at the anti slavery convention. 1st ever womens rights convention
Women began to gain more rights, new schools for women, medical opportunities opened up for women, young women had the same educational rights as boys
African boys and girls still faced discrimination regarding any educational oppurtunity
High rate of alchohol consumption caused reformers to target alcohol as the cause of social ills- cause reform movements
Protestant ministers were concerned with the effect of drinking, founded american temperance society. Tried to persuade abstinence
German and irish immigrants were largely opposed to these movements. Lacked political power to prevent anything from happening. Factory owners and politicians joined this movement because they though it would reduce crime and poverty, and increase workers output
By 1850s, slavery overshadowed this movement, however, it would gain strength again in 1870, and achieve national success with the passage of the 18th amendment of 1919
2nd great awakening led to many christians to believe that slavery was a sin that needed to be abolished
American Colonization society- idea of transporting freed slaves to african colony. Tried but not really widely supported
American Anti Slavery society- 1831 william garrison began the publication of an abolitionist newspaper. The liberator. He advocated immediate abolition of slavery in every state, north or south. In 1833, they founded this organization, and attacked the constitution saying it was a pro slavery document
Liberty Party- ran James Birney one time 1840 as president, didn't get it, tried to stop slavery through the presidency campaign
Black Abolitionists were escaped slaves and freed african americans who were some of the most outspoken critics of slavery. Frederick Douglass- spoke a lot. He started anti slavery journal called The North Star. Other african leaders such as harriet tubman tried to assist fugitive slaves in escaping from plantations.
Violent abolition- some people revolted, slaves revolted such as Nat Turner, and killed many whites, caused fear and future uprisings.
Following the Jacksonian era, the need for free public education for children of all classes came into pplay
Middle class reformers were motivated by fears for the future of republic posed by growing numbers of poor
Religious enthusiasm of the 2nd great awakening cause the building of multiple private colleges. Some colleges even began to admit women
Many of schools were made because of religion, such as protestant and catholic schools
Schools not only put emphasis on educational aspects such as literacy, but also moral aspects of life. They taught moral principles. Toward the end of this era, William Mcguffey wrote many textbooks teaching elementary schoolers reading and morality
Free Common Schools- Horace Mann was a leading advocate of the common (public) school movement. By 1840s this movement spread widely across all of the states
During early 1800s religious revivals swept through the US as a reaction against the rationalism of the enlightenment movement
2nd great awakening
Baptist and Methodist- in the south and western frontier, these preachers would travel and attract thousands of people to hear their preachings at outdoor events. By 1850, these two were the largest denominations in the country
Mormons- church of LDS. Book of mormon trace connection between american indians and the lost tribes of israel. Killed in Illinois. To avoid persecution, his followers fled to Utah, Great Salt Lake. Polygamy.
2nd awakening caused more divisions in the church