Various types of Assessment (Summative (TYPES (Examinations (major, high…
Various types of Assessment
Diagnostic assessment can help you identify your students’ current knowledge of a subject, their skill sets and capabilities, and to clarify misconceptions before teaching takes place (Just Science Now!, n.d.). Knowing students’ strengths and weaknesses can help you better plan what to teach and how to teach it
Pre-tests (on content and abilities)
Self-assessments (identifying skills and competencies
Discussion board responses (on content-specific prompts
Interviews (brief, private, 10-minute interview of each student)
Formative assessment provides feedback and information during the instructional process, while learning is taking place, and while learning is occurring. Formative assessment measures student progress but it can also assess your own progress as an instructor
when implementing a new activity in class, you can, through observation and/or surveying the students, determine whether or not the activity should be used again (or modified). A primary focus of formative assessment is to identify areas that may need improvement. These assessments typically are not graded and act as a gauge to students’ learning progress and to determine teaching effectiveness (implementing appropriate methods and activities).
At the end of the third week of the semester, you can informally ask students questions which might be on a future exam to see if they truly understand the material. An exciting and efficient way to survey students’ grasp of knowledge is through the use of clickers. Clickers are interactive devices which can be used to assess students’ current knowledge on specific content
Observations during in-class activities; of students non-verbal feedback during lecture
Homework exercises as review for exams and class discussions
Reflections journals that are reviewed periodically during the semester
Question and answer sessions, both formal—planned and informal—spontaneous
Conferences between the instructor and student at various points in the semester
In-class activities where students informally present their results
Student feedback collected by periodically answering specific question about the instruction and their self-evaluation of performance and progres
Summative assessment takes place after the learning has been completed and provides information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning process. Typically, no more formal learning is taking place at this stage, other than incidental learning which might take place through the completion of projects and assignments.
Rubrics, often developed around a set of standards or expectations, can be used for summative assessment. Rubrics can be given to students before they begin working on a particular project so they know what isexpected of them (precisely what they have to do) for each of the criteria. Rubrics also can help you to be more objective when deriving a final, summative grade by following the same criteria students used to complete the project.
High-stakes summative assessments typically are given to students at the end of a set point during or at the end of the semester to assess what has been learned and how well it was learned. Grades are usually an outcome of summative assessment.
Summative assessment is more product-oriented and assesses the final product, whereas formative assessment focuses on the process toward completing the product.
Examinations (major, high-stakes exams)
Final examination (a truly summative assessment)
Term papers (drafts submitted throughout the semester would be a formative assessment)
Projects (project phases submitted at various completion points could be formatively assessed)
Portfolios (could also be assessed during it’s development as a formative assessment)
Student evaluation of the course (teaching effectiveness)