Developing American Identity 1820-1880 (Education (Americans had the…
Developing American Identity 1820-1880
Temperance happened due to religion, the way it affected peoples bodies, money, and work and because women and children were suffering.
More regulations were created due to demand for prohibition which limited the amount at on time that could be sold. This led to per capita consumption decreasing
Temperance was promoted by press campaigns, local as well as state societies, and essays.
American Society for the Promotion of Temperance tried to have complete abstinence of alcohol but it lost popularity.
The Second Great Awakening was a revival that happened in 1800 due to fear of the states separating from religious institutions.
During the Second Great Awakening, Baptist became less strict and more simple, methodists established more structure (became largest Protestant church), and Presbyterians gained Plan of Union
Western New York experienced burned-over district (intense levels of evangelical activity) which led to Mormons who were subjected to abuse (which is why they migrated). The founder was arrested for having multiple wives, and was murdered in jail. Mormons settled in Utah and developed an irrigation system.
Abolitionists had a strong influence on religious life and the ideas spread.
Americans had the highest literacy rate in the western world.
In the 1830´s public school peaked. It reduced crime and poverty and improved manners. Statewide school system led by Horace Mann.
Poor conditions in public schools because teachers weren´t paid much.
Private schools taught higher education and only allowed girls to attend elementary school.
State-supported education in the south was led by North Carolina which was difficult due to farmwork, so school was shortened to 4 months long.
Relation/ Utopian Society
Shakers thought that Christ would have a second appearing and that God was a dual personality. This spread throughout New England in 1830-1860s.
Oneida Community was a group of perfectionists that accepted free love. They were led by John Humphrey Noyes.
Another society was New Harmony which was based on secular pride. Robert Owen supported labor legislation and created a utopian factory system.
In Massachusetts, brook farm was the most celebrated utopian society. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne both supported it. Brook Farm dissolved after the main building burned down.
Relation/ Utopian communities dissolved and failed quickly and had little effect on the outside world.
The Cult of Domesticity allowed women to have freedom from the outside world.
Catherine Beecher led an education movement that argued that women should be trained but only receive the standard education.
Women´s status remained the same. The could not vote, make will, or gain a higher education as well as most professions and they had no control of property or children. They basically had the same rights as a slave.
The Seneca Falls Convention by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Station proclaimed that women and men are created equal. The discussion of women´s rights was wanted.
Conventions led to some prominent men´s support who helped women win some legal gains (still couldn´t vote).