developing the American identity 1820-1880 (religion/ utopian society…
developing the American identity 1820-1880
religion/ utopian society
revivalism became in new york. revivalism is the appeal to people's emotions and fear of damnation, saying that people could be saved through faith and hard work.
The baptist and methodist in the south were there for people who never belonged to a church and where people could hear dramatic preaches outdoors. by 1850, they dominated most in the country.
sucessful preachers were well understood by uneducated people. they spoke about opportunities for salvation. these movements seemed attuned to the democratization of american society.
calvinism fought against the liberal views and began among educated people whom went to college to become an evangelical preachers.
experimental communities began in the the new land where people secluded themselves from society to create their own utopian communities. early mormons were an example of a religious community. brooke farm was an example of a humanistic or secular experiment. there were also the shakers, the amana colonies, new harmony, oneida community, and the fourier phalanxes.
religious revivals happened due to a reaction against rationalism. puritan teachings of original sin and predestination were rejected by those of the unitarian church and those of liberal views.
some writers like ralph emerson and henry thoreau questioned religion and searched for god in themselves and others. they also looked for god in nature. their view challenged the materialism of american society by suggesting artistic expression was more important than the pursuit of wealth. the transcendentalists supported individuality and reforms such as the antislavery movement
Garrison, the founder of the American anti slavery society, went as far as burning and condemning the constitution as a pro slavery document.
The liberty party was made when a defined split between the abolitionist. Since not everyone wanted to take garrisons moral crusade but rather a more practical route.
The anti-slavery society published an abolitionist newspaper called the liberator and it marked the beginning of the radical abolitionist movement.
Black abolitionist mainly helped by writing their first person experience and the racial prejudices. They also helped captives escape to the north or Canada.
Starting in 1817, America transported free salves to colonizing African colonies in Liberia. Between 1820-1860, about 12,000 freed slaves were transported but the slave population grew up to 2.5 million.
Violent abolitionist like nat turner, who started a revolt that resulted in hundreds of slaved to be murdered, cause the sentiment of people to become more fearful.
The abolitionist movements were mainly for abolishing slavery.
During this time, other countries were protesting against alcoholic drinks. Those countries were mainly English and Scandinavian speaking countries. This also lead to the prohibition in America lasting 1920s to 1933.
The movement had major influence on politics and society and even now, there are still organizations that promote temperance.
Teetotalism came from the movement. Teetotalism is the practice of abstinence from alcoholic beverages.
in 1826, protestant ministers began to be concerned with the drinking consumption and its effects founded the American Temperance Society. the tried to persuade drinkers to take a pledge to total abstinence.
the ratio of alcohol consumption- 5 gallons of hard liquor to a person in 1820 caused the temperance movement. it promoted reformers to target alcohol as the cause of social ills and explains why the movement became so popular.
The advocates for the temperance movement wants laws to regulate, limit, or even abolish all alcoholic beverages.
Moral education was widely supported and Catholics started private schools for moral teachings and dominated the teachings of English.
Higher education was established, meaning college. And began in states like Ohio and Illinois. Massachusetts enrolled women into their colleges.
Horace Mann was the leading person advocating public school movements. Public schools rapidly spread to other parts of America by the 1840s.
Before 1857, there were movements for colleges with classes for agriculture. 30000 dollars was granted to federal states for land . Thai was called the Morrill land grants act. This laid the foundation for a distinguished educational enfrastructure.
Parochial schools were established due to religious people to keep their children out of public school. In 1876, the constitution forbid tax money going into the schools due to them not being public.
After the civil war, around 1000 schools were established for black children and was very successful.by 1865, more than 90000 children were enrolled into the schools. The schools were like the northern established schools.
The Seneca falls convention (1848) in New York was the very first women convention to speak about the issues in equality. The women created laws and talked about which ones discriminated women and said all men and women are created equal.
Women reformers mainly protested for women rights due to male oppression towards women and them stopping women from speaking at anti-slander conventions and political conversations.
Also due to industrialization, men worked most of the day and left the women with housely roles and taking care of the children. This was also known as the cult of domesticity.
Due to industrialization, women began having less children and spent some of that extra time to join religious organizations like the New York female moral reform society. The organization prevented improverished young women from being forced into prostitution.