Developing American Identity (1820-1880) (Mormons (Also called the Church…
Developing American Identity (1820-1880)
Baptists and Methodists
Preachers like Peter Cartwright would hold outdoor meetings and drew in those who were not affiliated with a church previously.
These two denominations quickly became the most prevalent ones in the nation.
New York Revivalism
Charles G. Finney, a Presbyterian minister began preaching of damnation to New England settlers.
Took place in 1823 as many participated in public declarations of faith.
People were convinced that they could achieve salvation if they continued to work hard and stay faithful.
Many believed that the second coming of Christ would be soon upon them, and this was the driving force of religion at the time.
Preacher William Miller forecasted that October 21, 1821 was the day that the world would end.
Although the world didn't end, the Millerites went on the be later names the Seventh-Day Adventists.
Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830.
Faith and practices based on the Book of Mormon.
Followers were initially accumulated in New York and eventually moved west under the leadership of Brigham Young after Smith was killed by a mob until they reached what is now Salt Lake City, Utah.
The American public generally frowned upon the Mormon practice of polygamy.
People started to believe that the leading cause of social ills, so protestant ministers and their supporter established the American Temperance Society, which attempted consumers of alcohol to pledge sobriety.
Most German and Irish immigrants were opposed to the idea, but had minimal political influence in the U.S.
Maine became the first state to outlaw the production and sale of alcoholic beverages in 1851. Twelve more states did the same leading up to the Civil War.
The issue was soon overlooked when slavery became more controversial but later rose in priority again as many women's organization began to support it.
Education was mainly divided into three categories.
Free common schools
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education Horace Mann was the driving force behind the public school system. He was in favor of mandatory attendance for all children as well as an extended school year and giving teachers more resources to prepare for the school year.
In addition to teaching children academics, Horace Mann strove to teach moral principles as well. William Holmes McGuffey wrote and issued sets of textbooks that taught students ethics and the English language. Most Protestants were in favor of public schooling, but Roman Catholics went on to establish separate private schools.
The concept of private colleges became more prominent following the Second Great Awakening. Soon, Protestants built smaller colleges in the west, some of which allowed women. Any adults that sought out to further their education went to lectures or seminars.
As Americas started to become more industrialized, the roles of women changed. The cult of domesticity became more prevalent and women became the moral examples within their households when their husbands were off at work.
Women's rights was a growing issue as women desired to have equal status in society and in political affairs. Notable female activists at the time included Sara Grimké ("Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes"), Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
The first women's rights convention was the Seneca Falls Convention and was held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York. There, the women wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" and advocated for rights equal to those of men. Women's suffrage was later put on hold, as is was cast aside by the ongoing slavery controversy, but it was led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton up until that time.
Opposition toward slavery grew, especially following the events of the Second Great Awakening. Many started to see slavery as sinful and formed anti-slavery groups.
The American Colonization Society worked to transport freed slaves to communities of their own, the first being Monrovia, Liberia. This proved to be unsuccessful and was not continued as the slave population in the states grew and not enough slaves could be efficiently transported.
The American Antislavery Society was founded in 1883 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Two years prior, Garrison published "The Liberator", which was and anti-slavery newspaper. He deemed the Constitution to be pro-slavery until slave owners reluctantly freed their slaves.
Northerners later decided to take the political route in order to continue their efforts of abolishing slavery after Garrison played the morality angle. They then founded the Liberty Party in 1840, which worked to end slavery through legal means, and elected James Berny as their president.
Black Abolitionists consisted of free blacks and was the group that was most critical of slavery practices at the time. Their most famous member was Frederick Douglas, who was a former slave and spoke about the injustices he experienced. He began "The North Star", an anti-slavery journal, in 1847.
Other anti-slavery efforts were considered violent. Henry Highland and David Walker both promoted violent uprisings for slaves to conducts against their masters. Many uprisings followed, some of having outcomes so bloody that slavery opposition died out for a while in the south.