Birmingham Campaign (CONSEQUENCES (King elevated to top black leader (…
King elevated to top black leader
King was able to use his oratory skills for example Connor used violence but King used non violence in his protest.
King wanted to use non-violence throughout the protest and wanted Bull Connor to know that non-violence can overcome violence.
Martin Luther King wrote a “letter from Birmingham Jail” and was published worldwide and became famous.
King’s success made him and the president’s relationship close and ended up making him change his mind about segregation.
He was able to show the effectiveness of his non violent tactics in contrast to the brutal violence of Bull Connor.
March on Washington and Civil Rights Bill
Over 1600 marches took place in 1963.
In August 200,000 Americans converged on Washington, in the capital city of the USA. People came from all around parts of the country by plane, car, bus, train and on foot to take part in the black civil rights movements.
People saw how violently a bull Connor reacted towards the protestors and many people (both black and white) realised a change needed to come.
Desegregation in Birmingham
Birmingham realised their city needed a change fast, they didn’t want their city to be run by Bull Connor they need someone who is better.
first black officer appointed in danville, Virginia October 1963.
public facilities like libraries, golf courses were desegregated.
Some whites hired blacks
Segregation in Birmingham
Birmingham gave up a professional baseball team rather than integrate it
In Birmingham they closed public parks, libraries, and buses rather than integrate it
140,000 blacks were kept low paying jobs
If you could desegregate Birmingham you could show rest of the South that segregation could not be accepted any longer ‘success radiate through the South’
Birmingham was known for its city being ruled by fear and hatred
Violent reputation of Bull Connor
having Bull Connor running the city made situations dangerous for blacks to do anything
Bull Connor was always known for his violent reputation
‘as long as I am police commissioner in Birmingham, the niggers and white folks ain’t goin’ desegregate in this man’s town’
Bull Connor hated blacks ans was always against it
Bull Connor ordered firemen to turn high pressure hoses on blacks and ordered police to use dogs on the demonstrators
Failure in albany
king and SCLC leadership badly needed victory
king led marches, boycotts, and prayer vigils
schools remained segregated
king hoped to desegregate Albany but failed
campaign in Albany failed due to no media attention
their next campaign needed to be carefully planned to attract publicity and support from Birmingham