To what extent do different socialists agree over the role of the state?…
To what extent do different socialists agree over the role of the state?
They all agree that equality is the way in which a state should govern, what changes is the viewpoint of what extent the state should have complete control (communism/utopian complete, evolutionary/democratic less so) and how socialism should take over
KEY THINKER: RH Tawney
Believed in the importance of education if there was ever to be a fairer society, this was also combined with his strong religious beliefs.
(Role of State is to provide education)
KEY THINKER: Eduard Bernstein
called for political work in government economic and social improvements through Trade Unions and nationalisation of industry.
Evolutionary Socialists believed that Lenin was wrong and that capitalism was not going to collapse, therefore there needed to be an appreciation as to how the workers were going to be best represented in the democratic system.
Fabian society ensured that Labour party has been a non-revolutionary party
Titled Fabianism after Roman general Fabius and his theory of warfare, which was constructed around the theory of inevitability of gradualism.
Slower than revolutions such as in Cuba
Followed by Utopian Socialism laid out by Charles Fourier Robert Owen and William Morris
Morris felt that workers were just machines and ordered that mass production be stopped and the value of a product be according the amount of skilled work put in.
Owen created a commune of his own although he was an industrialist realising the importance of the workers efforts.
Fourier created communism before Marx with his ideas on cooperation and his phalanxes, which were groups of society put together for the greatest good.
Both ideas looking for equality no private property and no greed but were out of fashion with the contemporary beliefs of the day.
Pre dates capitalism with More’s Utopia and his vision for a simple rural lifestyle with greater consideration of others.
Gerard Winstanley and the Levellers before they were destroyed by Cromwell believed in greater equality and the levelling of society
The beginning of socialism?
Proletariat (w/c)/Bourgeois (the ruling class)
Complete state control
Rejection of private property
Def: the principle of common ownership of wealth or a system of comprehensive collectivisation; communism is often viewed as 'Marxism in practice'
Marxs and Engles
Def: A moderate or democratic brand of socialism that favours a balance between the market and the state, rather than abolition of capitalism
1945-79 Labour based its socialism around a number of key areas: Equal rights and equality of opportunity but no attempt to stifle individuals and their efforts to create wealth; Nationalisation for the good of the people the state had an expectation to provide job; Welfare State with compulsory contributions through wealth redistribution; Trade Unions to remain strong, as it was essential that the working man was represented.
Redistribution of wealth - capitalism can be harnessed by the state for greater equality
Shifted from being a party for the workers
Usually attempts to work with businesses rather than against
aka, not as extreme as that found in Europe
Role of State Def:
Four different key strands of socialism
(each their own para)