Collaborative learning (Why minimal guidance during instruction does not…
Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work
Learning, in turn, is defined as a change in
Process, approach: problem based, inquiry need less instruction
Too much instruction may impair learner's ability to achieve a task
Consequence of Human Cognitive Architecture
for Minimal Guidance During Instruction
Any instructional procedure ignoresconstitute human cognitive architecture is not likely to be
Human Cognitive Architecture
Working Memory Characteristics and Functions
When processing novel information, it is very limited in duration and in capacity.
almost all information stored in
working memory and not rehearsed is lost within 30 sec
The aim of all instruction is to alter long-term memory. If nothing has changed in long-term
memory, nothing has been learned.
These results suggest that expert problem solvers derive their skill by drawing on the extensive experience stored in their long-term memory and then quickly select and apply the best procedures for solving problems.
Everything we see, hear, and think about is critically dependent on and influenced by our long-term memory.
We are skillful in an area because our long-term memorycontains huge amounts of information concerning the area
That information permits us
to quickly recognize the characteristics of a situation and indicates to us, often unconsciously, what to do and when to do it.
well-learned and automated information
In contrast, when dealing with previously learned information stored in long-term memory, these limitations disappear. In the sense that information can be brought back from long-term memory to working memory over indefinite periods of time, the temporal limits of working memory become irrelevant.
Implications of Human Cognitive Architecture for
The goal of instruction is rarely simply to search for or discover information. The goal is to give learners specific guidance about how to cognitively manipulate information in ways that are consistent with a learning goal, and store the result in long-term memory.
All problem-based searching
makes heavy demands on working memory.
The consequences of requiring novice learners to search for problem solutions using a limited working memory or the mechanisms by which unguided or minimally guided instruction might facilitate change in long-term memory appear to be routinely ignored.
This work should be central to the design of effective,
RESEARCH COMPARING GUIDED AND
He reported that the teacher whose students achieved all
interactions with students by
simultaneously teaching content and scaffolding-relevant
procedures … by (a) modeling procedures for identifying
and self-checking important information … (b) showing students how to reduce that information to paraphrases … (c)
having students use notes to construct collaborations and
routines, and (d) promoting collaborative dialogue within problems. (p. 533)
when students learn science in
classrooms with pure-discovery methods and minimal feedback, they often become lost and frustrated, and their confusion can lead to misconceptions
It emphasizes the importance of providing novices in an area with extensive guidance because they do not have sufficient knowledge in long-term memory to prevent unproductive problem-solving search. That guidance can be relaxed only
with increased expertise as knowledge in long-term memory
can take over from external guidance.
Learners receiving guidance
through process worksheets outperformed learners left to
discover the appropriate procedures themselves.