Civil Rights in the USA, 1945-74 (Civil Rights in the 1950's (Brown vs…
Civil Rights in the USA, 1945-74
Civil Rights in the 1950's
Brown vs Topeka
with the support of the NAACP, Linda browns case was taken to the supreme court.
ON 17th May 1954, it was ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional, aq year later is was ruled that desegregation should happen in schools with "all deliberate speed".
This day was known as Black monday.
It was a catalyst for the revival of the Ku Kux Klan and Thew first white cicizen's councils were set up.- bombing outside MLK's house.
Montgomery bus boycott
Little Rock High school
Republican senetor, made a speech claiming to have a list of 205 memberers of the government who were communist. had support from the communist party and was used to win the 1952 election. - Was made chairman of the government committee on operations of the senete by P.Eisenhower.
Held hearings using bullying and aggressive questioning. evidence was fabricated, thousands lost jobs or had damaged careers, many departments lost intelligent and talented people
After his Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954, americans were shocked by his bullying. Anti McCarthy material began to appear from the army and others. Ed Murrow published See it now which opposed many to McCarthy.
Capitalism vs communism
- (1920s red scare = fear of eastern European immigrants)
Soviet expansion in Europe
- After 2nd world war,
Soviet troops remained in liberated countries, this provided a buffer zone against another invasion from the west. By 1960, most of these countries had communist governments. They became the Satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall plan
Promised to help and country resisting takeover by other groups or countries.
The Marshall plan was financial back-up which gave millions of dollars of aid.
The cold war
1945 - USA atomic bomb testing,
1949- communists win Chinese civil war
1949- soveit atomic bomb testing
1950- Korean war
other communist uprisings in Malaya, Indonesia, Burma and the Philippenes
- 1948 to 1949, West and East Germany, Stalin blocks all canal, road and rail supply lines. ( a failure for Soviets, a test of the Truman Doctrine)
Director was J.Edgar Hoover who had very strong anti-communtist views.
hoovers FBI ( after viocing his concern to P. Truman about communist spies within the goverrnment ) then set up federal Loyalty Boards to investigate employees that had links to communism. up to 3,000 people were fired or forced to resign under little to no evidence.
the house committee on un- american activities was set up in 1938 to moniter "extremist"groups.
was passed information secretly by the FBI and held public hearings. They sent people for criminal trial depending on the answers they recieved
The Hollywood ten
writers and directors suspected of spreading communist propaganda
were jailed for 1 year and blacklisted for contempt in court.
named a memeber of a communist group, sent to trial for leaking info to Soviet union.
-sentenced to 5 years in prison for lying to court.
sister and brother in law of a communist spy
evidence against them was weak but they were sentenced to death and executed in 1953.
McCarren internal security act of 1950
( all communist organisations must register with the government.)
Civil rights protests 1960.
SDS - students for a democratic society
Green= Between countries
Orange= within the USA