CentralNervousSystem.LanPham.pdf (Cerebrum (Five Lobes (Fontal Lobe:…
Fontal Lobe: planing, thinking, decision making, working memory, initiate
Temporal Lobe: contains olfactory cortex and auditory cortex, recognize objects, words, faces, language comprehension, emotional response and memory.
Parietal Lobe: processes sensory stimuli, consciously aware of general somatic sensation, objects, sounds and body parts, understanding of speech
Occipital Lobe: visual cortex
Insula: deep in lateral sulcus. The visceral sensory cortex for taste and general visceral sensations.
Pre and Post Central Gyrus
Pre-central gyrus: location of primary motor cortex
Post-central gyrus: location of primary somatosensory cortex
Broca and Wernicke are
Broca area: controls the motor movement of speech, located in frontal lobe (left hemisphere)
Wernicke are: located in the temporal lobe on the left side, production of speech, able to name viewed objects, read words
The three white matter tracts
Association tract: connects different parts of the same hemisphere
Commissural tract: connects one hemisphere to another, the largest is corpus callosum
Projection tract: either ascending or descending from the cerebral cortex, these fibers run vertically.
Thick pyramidal motor tracts, thick middle cerebellar peduncle, reticular formation nuclei, involved with autonomic behavior
Superior Colliculi: act in visual reflexes
Inferior Colliculi: act in auditory reflexes
contains the pyramidal motor tracts
has pyramid tract, reticular formation nuclei, cardiovascular center, vasmotor center, respiratory center
two longitudinal ridges, formed by pyramidal tracts, carrying voluntary motor output
Decussation of pyramids
pyramidal fibers cross over, controls voluntary movement of the opposite sides.
Cranial nerve nuclei
Vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VII)
Glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX)
Vagus nerve (cranial nerve X)
Hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII)
cauliflower-like, help maintain posture and equilibrium, smooth and coordinate body movements
connects the pons to the cerebellum, carry efferent information
Inferior cerebellar peduncles
connects medullar oblongata to the cerebellum, carry afferent fibers
Superior cerebellar peduncles
connect the cerebellum to the midbrain, carrying primarily efferent instructions
Hypothalamus: composed of several nuclei of gray matter, visceral control cortex, controls of the autonomic NS, regulates body temperature, hungry, thirst, sleep/wake cycles, control emotional responses,..
Epithalamus: consists of one tiny group of brain nuclei, unpaired knob is called pineal gland which secrete melatonin to signal for the nighttime of the sleep/wake cycles.
Thalamus: paired structure, contains of several nuclei which is organized and amplified or "tone down" the signals for the cerebral cortex, afferent impulses from all the conscious senses except olfaction.
involved in sensory and motor innervation, way conduction pathways for signals, center of reflexes
spinal cord tapers
collection of nerve roots at the of vertebral canal
Cervical and lumbar enlargements
nerve to the upper and lower limbs arise
long filament of connective tissue, extends from conus medullaris to the coccyx
ventral motor roots
dorsal sensory roots
Meninges has 3 layers
Arachnoid matter: lies deep to the dura matter
Subarachnoid space: web-like threads hold arachnoid matter to the underlying pia matter, filled with C.S.F, contains largest blood vessles
Subdural space: thin, contains only film of fluid
Pia matter: "gentle mother", layer of delicate C.T, richly vascularized with fine blood vessels
Dura matter: "tough mother", strongest, dense fibrous C.T
Periosteal layer: superficial, near bone
Meningeal layer: deeper, covering of the brain
filled with cushioning fat and network of veins in the spinal cord
spaces between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura, blood filled spaces