Internal and External communication (Process of effective communication (A…
Internal and External communication
Studying effective communication is needed to avoid serious consequences in businesses.
Communication within the business. Management would be impossible without it.
"How many hours did you work last week?"(Manager asks a worker)
"There will be a Fire Drill at 11 00 today."(notice on a board)
"Please do not smoke in this area."(notice on a table)
Messages sent between organizations or between organizations and individuals who aren't employees like a customer.
Orders for goods from suppliers
Sending information to customers about prices and delivery times.
Advertising goods or services.
Why it has to work well.
Important to the image and efficiency of a business, may cause miscommunication.
A business must contact thousands of customers who have bought a product which turns out to be dangerous. An email is sent to all customers who bought the products to ask them to return the item for a refund.
A Sales Manager records a customer order taken over the internet for 330 items to be delivered by next Wednesday.
A Finance Manager writes a letter to the tax office asking how much must be paid this year.
between external and internal is the
Process of effective communication
of the information - the person to whom the message should be sent.
, where the receiver confirms that the message has been receives and responds to it, ensuring it's been correctly received.
medium of communication
e.g an email or noticeboard.
of the message. Passes on information to others. They carefully choose the next 2 features so communication is effective.
One-way and two-way communication
One-way communication occurs when the receiver has no chance to respond. E.g an instruction
Two-way communication is when there's a reply. e.g a simple conformation, a discussion
Becomes absolutely clear. If they still don't understand the message, it can be edited and sent again so effective communication takes place.
Both people are involved in the communication process. The receiver can contribute to the topic and motivates the receiver.
Verbally e.g phone-call
Meetings and team briefings
Info can be given out quickly and quite widely.
Opportunity for immediate feedback.
Message is often reinforced by seeing the speaker.
Takes longer when feedback occurs than written form.
Inappropriate when an accurate and permanent record of the message is needed.
In a big meeting, you can't tell if everyone is listening or understood.
Written e.g letters, notices
- used internal or externally, should follow a set structure.
(Memorandum) - Written messages, only internally. Many businesses send these though internal email systems.(Example in pg 120)
- Detailed documents about an issue. Often produced by experts. Very often, not all employees can understand them.
- Displays info to everyone. No certainty they are read however.
- Written messages sent to other offices by electronic means.
- Quick, convenient, easy and discrete. No way to assess the mood of the sender.
Email and social networking
- Other forms electronic communication using IT. Easy and effective communication with customers and supplier. e.g Twitter.
Essential for messages involving complicated details which might be misunderstood/forgotten.
Can be copied and sent to many people.
Hard evidence to reduce disagreements.
Electronic communication is a quick and cheap way to reach large numbers of people.
Direct feedback is not always possible, unless electronic communications is used. This can lead to too many messages and 'information overload'. Leading to missed important messages. Two-way communication is difficult.
Not easy to check if it has been received.
No body language/tone to reinforce the message.
Visually e.g diagrams, charts, videos.
Films, videos and Microsoft PowerPoint displays
- Used to help train new staff or inform sales people about new products.
- Explain simple, but important messages by pictures.
Charts and diagrams
- Shows numerical data or simplify complicated ideas like the organization of a business.
Photographs and cartoon
- Used to add variety, colour and humour to a message - all of which increases the chance of communication being read and understood.
Can appealingly and attractively present information. People often prefer this than reading letters.
Can make a written message clearer with illustration illustrating the point being made.
No feedback and the sender may need to use other forms of communication to check if it is understood.
Some people can't interpret data from diagrams.
Choosing the appropriate method
- Is it important to keep costs down or to communicate effectively.
- If it contains technical plans, figures and illustrations then, clearly, written and other visual forms of communication are likely to be essesntial.
- Is it important that the receiver gets the information really quickly.
- Is the leadership styles a democratic one? If so, then two-way verbally with employees is more likely used than by an autocratic leader.
- If just one person has to be communicated with, and they work near, then one-to-one conversation is needed. But this won't work if hundreds need to receive the message.
Importance of a written record
- If it's essential in the future, then verbal communication would be inappropriate. e.g legal contracts, receipts.
Importance of feedback
- If feedback is essential, perhaps quickly, then a direct verbal method might be most appropriate.
Formal and Informal Communication
Formal communication is like attending official meetings, reports, notices.
You are more likely to receive messages through informal channels, such as meetings with friends at break times. Informal, unrecognized meetings are referred to as "Grapevine". Managers use this to "try out" the reaction to new ideas. They can spread gossip and the manager cannot prevent these informal links between people.
Direction of communications
Communication barriers happen when one of the four features of effective communication fails. Examples of most common barriers and ways to overcome them are in pg 125