MaryBiraiCentralNervousSystem (Cerebrum (Temporal lobe: auditory,…
Thalamus: Is a paired structure
Has several nuclei
All sensory info on way to cortex goes through the thalamus except olfaction
Its a relay station. There can be amplification or "tone down" the signal
Main visceral control center
controls the autonomic nervous system with the help of grey matter in the brain stem
regulates body temperature, hunger/thirst, sleep/wake cycles
controls endocrine system
involved with emotion
controls motivational behavior: food & sex
formation of memory
forms part of roof of 3rd ventricle
Houses the pineal gland (a small unpaired knob) which is a hormone secreting organ
The pineal gland secretes melatonin & prepares us for sleep
Superior Cerebellar peduncles
connect midbrain to the cerebellum
Middle Cerebellar Peduncles
connects our cerebellum to the cerebral cortex
connects pons to cerebellum
Outer grey cortex, internal white matter (arbor vitae), and deep grey matter called nuclei
Both grey portions are neuron cell bodies
Inferior Cerebellar peduncles
Connect medulla oblongata to the cerebellum
proprioception & equilibrium
smooth & coordinate body movements with help of other brain parts.
It also maintains posture and equilibrium
Pia Mater: Gentle Mother
Fibrous connective tissue
Very vascular - capillary rich
Subarachnoid Space: Deep to the arachnoid membrane
Filled with cerebral spinal fluid
Holds arachnoid mater to pia mater
Contains large blood vessels that supply the brain
Arachnoid granulations allow cerebral spinal fluid to pass from subarachnoid space to dural venous sinuses.
Filled with cushioning fat and a network of veins
Anesthetics are often injected here to block nerve impulses
Dura Mater: " tough mother"
tough dense fibrous connective tissue
has 2 layer
perosteal layer - attaches to internal surface of skull bones ( this layer doesn't exist in spinal cord)
meningeal layer - forms true external covering of brain (also found in spinal cord)
subdural space has a little film of fluid
Lies deep to the dura mater
Subdural space is between the arachnoid mater and dura mater
Subdural space is potential space that can be filled with blood or fluid as result of disease or trauma
this is formed from the separation of perosteal and meningeal portion of Dura Mater.
it is filled with deoxygenated blood
Collect blood from brain and conduct it to the large internal jugular veins of the neck.
Filum Terminal: means "end filament"
a long filament of connective tissue that extends from the conus medullaris and attaches to the coccyx inferiorly
anchors the spinal cord in place so that it is not jostled by body movements
Anterior Roots: Ventral Roots
Grey matter of the spine
Motor 1/2 of the PNS
Contains visceral (autonomic) motor and somatic motor neurons
supplies muscles and glands
Cauda Equina: "horse's tail"
Collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal that resembles a horse's tail
Posterior Roots: Dorsal Roots
Grey matter of the spine
Sensory 1/2 of the PNS
Contains Visceral sensory portion: interneurons receiving input from visceral sensory neurons
Contains Somatic Sensory portion: interneurons receiving input from somatic sensory neurons
axons reach the spinal cord
Conus medullaris: "cone of the spinal cord"
Tapers at the inferior end of spinal cord.
Pons: 2nd region of brain stem
grey matter of the pons
reticular formation nuclei - involved with autonomic behaviors
contains middle cerebellar peduncles
contains Cranial nerve V, VI, and VII.
Medulla oblongata: continuous with spinal cord at level of foramen magnum
cardiac center: heart
vasomotor center - blood pressure
respiratory center- breathing rate
Pyramids: cortex of precentral gyrus. Motor output through pyramidal tracts.
Decussation of the pyramids: pyramidal fibers that cross from one side of the brain to the other. Result is each cerebral hemisphere controls voluntary movements of opposite side of body
cranial nerve nuclei: a place where cranial nerves connect with brain.
10/12 nerves connect with portion of brain stem. olfactory and optic nerves do not
Midbrain: between diencephalon and pons
Motor movement - particularly movements of the eye & in auditory & visual processing.
Cerebral peduncles: on ventral surface of brain. Composed of pyramidal motor tracts to spinal cord
On dorsal aspect of midbrain, there is corpora quadrigemina
2 superior colliculi are involved in visual reflexes
2 inferior colliculi are involved in auditory reflexes
Precentral gyrus: anterior to central sulcus. Primary motor complex. Control of voluntary movement
Postcentral gyrus: posterior to central sulcus. Primary somatosensory cortex: skin, muscles, joints (extremities), proprioception. Consciously aware of those sensations
Insula: gustation cortex. general visceral sensation ( stretch, discomfort, pain)
Broca area: on the left hemisphere. Controls motor movements of speech
Occipital lobe: location of visual cortex
Wernicke area: understanding of speech. Able to name objects and read words. In the left hemisphere
Temporal lobe: auditory, olfactory cortex. recognition of objects, words, & faces. Language comprehension. Emotional response and memory
Association tracts: connects parts of same hemisphere
Parietal lobe: Sensory part of brain, receives sensory info & processes it, Conscious awareness of a general somatic sensation - touch, pressure, temp
Commissural tracts: Corpus callosum - able to name objects and read words. Go from one part of the CNS to the other
Frontal lobe: Thinking & planning, making decisions, planning & initiating voluntary movement, memory
Projection tracts: communication between the cortex and the periphery. Either descend from cerebral cortex to more caudal parts or ascend to cortex from lower regions. Run vertically.