Science :male-scientist::female-scientist: and Ideology (Science as a…
Science :male-scientist::female-scientist: and Ideology
Science as a belief system
Impact of science
:pill: :male-doctor: :hospital: :female-doctor:
:car: :airplane: :phone: :bullettrain_front:
:potable_water: :toilet: :bulb:
Change in :sunny: :sweat_drops: :snowflake: :foggy: :world_map:
:volcano: of nuclear weapons : :gun: :hocho: :bomb:
Cruel experiments : :lipstick: :rabbit: :dog2: :cat:
Super :muscle::skin-tone-3::bug: due to adaption of antibiotics
Open beliefs systems
Every scientist's theories are open to criticism and testing by others.
Disregards falsified knowledge-claims that enable scientific understanding of the world to grow.
Scientists set out to try to falisfy existing theories
Building on achievements of scientists to develop greater understanding of the world.
No theory is the truth
Science can only thrive as a social institution if it receives support from other institutions
Science is an institution that needs a set of norms that make scientists act in ways that serve the goal of increasing scientific knowledge
Identifies 4 norms
Nothing is private property. Scientists share their findings with the scientific community. Otherwise, knowledge can't grow.
Truth or falsity of scientific knowledge is judged by universal objective criteria.
Being committed to discovering knowledge for its own sake. Publishing findings makes it harder for scientists to practice fraud.
No knowledge-claim is regarded as 'sacred'. Every idea is open for questioning, criticism and testing by others.
Closed belief system
Sciences appears to differ fundamentally from traditional religious belief systems
Scientific knowledge: provisional, open to challenge, potentially disprovable.
Religion claims : special, perfect knowledge of absolute truth.
Science is an open belief system
Where knowledge-claims are open to criticism and can be disproved.
Science is a closed belief system
Where knowledge-claims can't be overturned. Through number of devices or 'get-out-clauses' that reinforces system, prevents being disproved.
Study of Azande people of Sudan illustrating :postal_horn: ideas of self-reinforcing, closed belief system
Witchcraft among the Azande
Natural events have natural causes - but don't believe in coincidence or chance
Misfortune = witchcraft by someone else
Injured makes accusation against witch
Resolved by consulting prince's magic poison oracle
Prince's diviner administers the potion (benge) to a chicken
Asks the chicken whether the accused is source
If yes then the chicken must die
If the chicken dies - the sufferer can go and demand the witchcraft to stop.
This tends to solve the problems as Azande regard witchcraft as psychic power - coming from intestines. Harming intentionally or unconsciously.
This system has useful social functions
Clears the air and prevents grudges
Encourages neighbours to behave considerately towards one another
All belief systems have 3 devices to sustain themselves
Each idea in system is explained in terms of another ideas within the system
Example : if oracle fails, it is explained as incorrect use of benge
Denial of legitimacy to rivals
Belief systems reject alternative worldviews by refusing grant any legitimacy to basic assumptions
Science as a closed belief system