Bickman (1974)-Experiment 1 (Experiment 1 method and design (Field…
Bickman (1974)-Experiment 1
To investigate the degree of social power the uniform has on other people.
A uniformed guard has more ability to influence individuals than the same person in a low-authority uniform.
Experiment 1 method and design
NYC Brooklyn street
Independent measures design- participants only experienced one level of authority.
IV- type of uniform (civilian, milkman and guard) DV- levels of obedience
153 adult pedestrians aged 18-61 (age was estimated by experimenters)
Opportunity sample- using whoever's available at the time.
Four white male confederates wore the uniforms- they were blind to the aim of the study.
They were directed to act exactly the same, regardless of what uniform they were wearing.
The three situations were tested with each uniform and this includes: to pick up a bag off the floor, give change to a stranger for a parking meter or to stand on the other side of the bus stop.
The experiment was conducted on weekdays with the majority of data collected in the afternoons.
Dime: civilian- 34%, milkman- 57%, guard-89%
Bus stop- civilian- 20%, milkman-21%, guard- 56%
paper bag: civilian-36%, milkman-64%, guard-82%
Showed no significant difference in obedience between the milkman and civilian, although the guard was obeyed significantly more than the civilian.