Competence as expertise The role of knowledge in becoming an expert (Take…
Competence as expertise
The role of knowledge in becoming an expert
Traditional school of thought
Expert as "answer-filled practitioner"
Knowledge as a resource
Expert development is a journey on which knowledge and experience are acquired
Emerging school of thought
Next stage is for organisation of knowledge to "free up resources" - moving knowledge from system 2 to system 1 thinking
This frees up cognitive resources for improvement
True experts v experienced non-expert
Experts continue to build on their knowledge
Experts use knowledge as a base for developing new knowledge
?Link to growth mindset
Knowledge as a resource for problem solving AND a resource for knowledge creation and practice improvement
Knock on effects
Changes our approach to developing experts
Sequestered problem solving methodology shows learners can only translate learning 10-30% of the time to novel situations.
"Learners must move beyond potentially misleading surface similarities and identify similarity at the deep, conceptual level of a problem"
Learning conceptualised as "preparation for future learning
"the ability to learn new information from available resources, relate new learning to past experiences, and demonstrate innovation and flexibility in problem solving"
Bransford and Schwartz 1999. Double transfer design
PFL methodology shows differences in learning compared to SPS
Beyond knowledge in the individual
Knowledge as an artefact
Viewed through diffusion literature
Knowledge shared within a community for the purpose of collective improvement
Idea of individual adaptive expert practice and sustained practice improvement at community level
Knowledge building environment
Brings knowledge out of mind and into the environment
Dialogue supports diversity, criticism and analysis
That knowledge is impacted by context
Cognition shapes and is shaped by social and physical contexts
Take home messages
Need to change the way we think about knowledge
Need to change the way that we think about what we do with the knowledge that we acquire - move from producing experienced non-experts to true experts
Create environments that produce "true experts"
Recognise social aspects of knowledge
Community and situated knowledge
Questions for video
Can video help bring "new information" in the PFL context?
Can video help share knowledge (i.e. the supervisor's frame of reference) in the knowledge as artefact model?
Can video help make the implicit context explicit using the situated knowledge framework?