Protestant reformation (Origins of the protestant reformation (Martin…
Origins of the protestant reformation
Monk and professor in Germany where he lectured the Bible and studied the certainty of salvation
Believed that faith alone determined salvation, not the good works that Catholicism claimed were needed to gain salvation
Called for the reform of the church and wrote the ninety-five theses when his demands were ignored.
Excommunicated by the Pope. His works were burned and he was made an outlaw, sent into hiding to prevent his death.
movement that developed in Northern Europe during the Renaissance.
combined classical learning and individualism with the goal of reforming the church.
Inspired by the philosophy of Humanism and called for the reforms of the church.
Believed Christianity should show people how to live a good life on a daily basis rather than merely providing the belief that they might be saved.
Did not favor external forms of religious practice such as pilgrimages, fasts, or relics.
Wrote The Praise of Folly, which was a satirical work that humorously criticized the church and clergy who visited religious shries
Reasons for Luther's break with the Catholic Church
need for reform
Erasmus was not the only one to call for reform. Records of normal citizens,
humanists, and even some Church officials were critical of Church practices
Common view that Church officials were using the Church offices to
advance themselves and their personal wealth
Common view that the Pope was more concerned with Italian politics than
the spiritual needs of his people
Common view that local priests were ignorant of their spiritual duties
Large complaint came with the Church sale of indulgences. For those that
could afford them, or that went on pilgrimages to religious relics, this would
absolve them of sin. Seen as buying one’s way into Heaven.
Written by Martin Luther and allegedly posted on the Churches door on October 31st, 1517
a list of complaints regarding the church
Largest complaint: the sale of indulgences
Did not believe in the system of sacraments
Responses to Luther and the Protestant Reformation
Break with the catholic church
When the Church did not respond to his complaints, he called on German
princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German Church
Pope excommunicated Luther because of his complaints and defiance
Luther was made an outlaw, his works burned, and was sent into hiding by
his local lord Frederick III who did not want to see him killed
Luther called before the Imperial Diet (legislative assembly) in the city of
Worms where Charles V (Holy Roman emperor) hoped to persuade him to
change his stance. Luther refused
Spread of the Protestant Reformation
Rise of Lutheranism
Many of the 300 German lords
and rulers whose lands made up the Holy Roman Empire agreed with him.
Motivations were economic and political as well as religious.
Luther seized on this and set up new services to replace Catholicism
A very difficult struggle
Impact of Protestant Reformation on politics
Peace of Augsburg
Ended religious warfare in Germany
Formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany
The German states (300 lords and rulers) were free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism.
States would have the same legal rights regardless
Citizens were not given freedom of individual choice, but had to follow the selection of their lord or ruler
created by King Charles V
King of the Holy Roman empire.
close association with the pope, who called for something to be done about Luther, while his nobles agreed with Luther's beliefs and disliked his relation with the pope.
Could not handle the threat of the nobles on top of Muslim invasions and fighting with the French.
Eventually gave in to the pressure of the nobles and created the Peace of Augsburg.