Chapter 9: Internal and External Communication (Written Communication…
Chapter 9: Internal and External Communication
The transferring of a message from the sender to the receiver, who understands the message.
: The information or instructions being passed by the sender to the receiver
If communication isn't
in a business, it will cause serious consequences
: Between members of the same organisation.
Examples: 'Please do not smoke in this area' (notice on table)
'How many hours did you work last week?' (manager asks a worker)
'There will be a Fire Drill at 11 00 today' (notice on a board)
: Between the organisation and other organisations or individuals.
Examples: orders goods from suppliers
sending information to customers about prices and delivery times
advertising goods and services
asking customers to pay bill on time
Why does external communication has to work well?
External Communication is very important to the image and efficiency of a business. If a firm communicates ineffectively with suppliers, it may be sent the wrong materials. If sends inaccurate info to customers, may buy product from another firm.
Process of effective communication
Transmitter / Sender of the message: The person starting off the process by sending the message. - this person needs to choose the next to features carefully for an effective communication.
The medium of communication: The method used to send a message, for example, a letter is a method of written communication and a meeting is a method of verbal communication.
Receiver: The person who receives the message.
Feedback: The reply from the receiver which shows whether the message has arrived, been understood and, if necessary, acted upon.
One-way and Two-way Communication
: Involves a message which does not call for or require a response.
: When the receiver gives a response to the message and there is a discussion about it. - This could lead to better and clearer communication. Receiver will also feel more apart of this process.
methods of communication involve the sender of the message speaking to the receiver
methods of communication include letters and notices / posters but increasingly involve the use of information technology
methods of communication include methods such as diagrams, charts and videos
Factors to consider before choosing the appropriate method:
How detailed the message is
Need for feedback
The receiver (e.g. one person or many)
Need for written record
One-to-one talks/ meetings between sender and receiver
Meetings and team briefings
Information can be given out quickly
There is opportunity for immediate feedback and two-way communication
The message is often reinforced by seeing the speaker. Body language and expression of speaker can help to put message across effectively
In a big meeting, there is no way of telling whether everybody is listening or had understood the message
It can take longer to use verbal methods when feedback occurs than to use a written form of communication
When an accurate and permanent record of the message is needed, such as a warning to worker, a verbal method is inappropriate
Notices pinned on boards
Email and social networking sites
There is 'hard' evidence of the message which can be referred to in the future
It is essential for certain messages involving complicated details which might be understood if, for example, a telephone call was made
A written message can be copied and sent to many people
Electronic communication is a quick and cheap way to reach a large number of people
Direct feedback is not always possible, unless electronic communication is used
It is not so easy to check that the message has been received and acted upon as with verbal messages
The language used can be difficult for some receivers to understand
There is no opportunity for body language to be used to reinforce message
Films, videos, and microsoft powerpoint displays
Charts and diagrams
Photographs and cartoons
These methods can present information in an appealing and attractive way
They can be used to make a written message clearer by adding a chart or diagram to illustrate the point being made
There is no feedback and the sender of the message may need to use other forms of communication to check that the message is understood
Charts and graphs are difficult for some people to interpret
: When messages are sent through established channels using professional language.
: When information is sent and received casually with the use of everyday language.
: Factors that stop effective communication of messages.
Problems with sender
:red_cross: Difficult language is used :check: Should use understandable language
:red_cross: Unclear message :check: Should be as clear as possible
:red_cross: Message too long :check: Should be as brief as possible
:red_cross: Sent to wrong person :check: Double check
Problems with medium
:red_cross: Message may be lost :check: Insist on feedback
:red_cross: Wrong channel used :check: Select appropriate channel
:red_cross: Too many people pass on message :check: Shortest possible channel should be used
:red_cross: Breakdown of medium :check: Other forms of communication should be mad available
Problems with receiver
:red_cross: Does not listen :check: Emphasise message and ask for feedback
:red_cross: Lack of trust :check: There should be trust for an effective communication
Problems with feedback
:red_cross: No feedback :check: Perhaps no feedback was asked for
:red_cross: Received too slowly or distorted :check: Direct lines of communication between subordinates and managers must be available