Gender and language theorists (Deborah Cameron (2008) (Men have a natural…
Gender and language theorists
Horn + Kleinder (2000)
"man" was not gender specific to begin with. "Mann" was gender neutral. Only later acquired a gender specific meaning.
Julia Stanley (1990)
Exclusion of women in language - classifies negatively due to male dominance.
Suffix "ess" (waitress, actress) is added to words as women are an exception, they are not considered the norm in the working world.
Sir Thomas Wilson (1553)
Wilson was a famous grammarian of this time. He believed that the male name should precede the female name in all speech and writing. This was published in 'The Art of Rhetorique), informing people how to behave.
Koenraad Kuiper (1991)
Men pay less regard to save face.
Insults to express solidarity
Jane Pilkington (1992)
Women in same sex talk are collaborative. Men are less supportive and complimentary. (Go women use positive politeness strategy)
Deborah Cameron (2008)
Men have a natural desire to be competitive which results in a more competitive speech style. Cameron agrees with Tannen - women talk about people, relationships and feelings.
T- Producing redundancy in meaning by saying the same thing twice (family woman)
m- Identifying and item as different from the normal (Family man)
Marking and tautology
There are 200 sexually promiscuous words for women and 20 for men. They are mostly negative for females.
Women occupy negative semantic space due to marked forms (lady doctor, female surgeon)
Janet Hyde (2005) - The Diversity Model
'Males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables'
Only difference is the context that they are measured in
-Males and females are more alike than not, with personality cognitive ability and leadership
The Diversity Model is considered the most modern approach in terms of gender. Janet Hyde refers to her research as 'The Gender Similarities Hypothesis.'
Deborah Tannen (1984) - The Difference Model
Said that men wanted to
Jennifer Coates (1989) - The Difference Model
chatting - most intimate form of gossip
Bitching - overt expression of women's anger at their women
scandal - judging of others
house talk - exchange of information
looked at female conversation
Outlined 6 distinctions to describe the differences between male and female language:
Conflict vs. compromise
Orders vs. proposals
Information vs. Feelings
Advice vs. Understanding
Independence vs. Intimacy
Status vs. Support
Zimmerman and West (1975) - The Dominance Model
Men are more likely to interrupt than females in conversation.
They reported that in 11 mixed sex conversations, men used 46 interruptions, but women only 2.
Dale spender (1985)
Adjectives that describe women are pejorative, many words for women have assumed negative connotations or are far more sexualised than the lexically equivalent words more men. This is known as lexical asymmetry. She states that 'it is especially difficult to challenge this power system.'
Jane Mills (1991)
Sees feminine styles of speech as a mechanism of social control. This means that women try to be 'nice' and 'ladylike' and carefully monitor their behaviour to ensure it is appropriate. Also coined the term 'semantic derogation' otherwise known as 'lexical asymmetry' (Dale Spender). This is the idea that words for men have positive connotation whilst words for women have negative ones.
These patterns are not found in mixed sex talk
All female talk is co-operative: speakers negotiate discussions and support each other rights as speakers
Says that female conversation and supports Deborah Tannen's ideas
'Women's talk' falls into four categories
a considered judging of behavior of others, and women in particular
3) House Talk
its distinguishing function is the exchange of information and reources connected with the female role as an occupation
Argued all theories were biased because the concentrated on the differences between men and women's speech rather than the
Questioned Zimmerman and West's theory that men's interruptions were a sign of dominance. He said it could be to show support and understanding.
Differences not similarities.
Females: more interested in for bonds - tend to talk less and agree more; more polite indirect orders - to avoid conflict; aim to show understanding by compromising and offering support rather than solutions.
Men: more concerned with status - interrupt more; gives more direct orders - don't mind conflict; more intensifiers in getting facts and solving problems.
Zimmerman and West 1975
found 96% of interruptions were made by men, suggesting male dominance in conversation.
O'Barr and Atkins 1980
Studied 'witnesses' in courtroom cases for 30 months, analysing the use of speech differences between men and women proposed by Lakoff.
They found that the differences in language were not necessarily the result of being a woman, but of being 'powerless.' They found more differences in speech patterns depending on an individual's position in the courtroom. (Language and Power/ Language Hierarchy).
Disputed Lakoff, said that it was males and females of low social status who used these linguistic features.
Lakoff (Robin) 1975
Socialisation Quote (1975)
Lakoff belived that male and female language traits are conditioned from an early age:
"If a little girl 'talks rough' like a boy, she will be ostracised, scolded or made fun of"
The Deficit Model (1975)
Lakoff argued that women tend to use linguistic forms that reflect and reinforce a subordinate role in society.
Trends of male spoken language include:
hypercorrect grammar and punctuation
More empathic language
More tag questions
More taboo language
More taboo language
A more direct style
She argued that these features of speech make women seem more inferior, weak and needy and prevents women from being taken seriously.
Women use: hedges + fillers; tag questions; apologetic requests, indirect requests, speak less, use fewer expletives, more intensifiers.
Boys tend to use more non-grammatical terms, such as "Ain't" than girls
Peter Trudgill (1974)
Women are more likely to use overt prestige (RP) and men are more likely to use covert prestige (Regional Accent).
Women's pronunciation is closer to RP than male's