political philosophy (identity ( (In the post-Cold War world order,…
In the post-Cold War world order, countries are no longer able to easily categorise themselves and have entered into an identity crisi. To cope with their crisis countries looked to countries with similar history, beliefs and culture. -
Samuel P. Huntington
People "need new sources of identity, new forms of stable community and new sets of moral precepts to provide them will a sense of meaning and purpose." -Could this be religion? Huntington believed religions around the world would receives surges in commitment.
Huntington believed that the West will fade. 1) decline of power does not occur in a straight line; it may reverse, speed up or pause. 2) The power of a state is controlled and influence by the behaviour and decisions of those holding power.
Before 1500 AD, civilisations were separated geographically and the spread of ideas and technologies. People didn't feel as if they needed God in the same way.
Huntington established a new paradigm called a clash of civilisation. The argument for this can be seen in the splitting of the world into eight parts seen above. That people will hold on to and fight for their individual ideas.
"We need a new map" To restructure the world after the cold war. Splitting the world into eight parts. The map is titled "civilisation paradigm"
Hindu, Latin American, Sinic (China, Southeast Asia, Korea, Vietnam), Japanese, Orthodox, Western, African, Islamic
Core States; the states that hold the most power, are the most influential. Both in culture, economy, military ect.
, the bipolar world (one power) order enabled countries to identify themselves as either aligned or non-aligned
; a system of government that is centralised and dictatorial and requires complete subservience of the state.
; a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the workers. (protecting the working class)
; Political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the freedom of the individual to be the central problem of politics. (every man for himself)
Merit-based justice; Giving unequally based on what each person deserves.
Need-based justice; Everyone shouldn't get the same, because our needs aren't the same.
Justice as equality; Everyone should get the same kind and the same amount of stuff.
There is no good to be found in vindictively causing pain to wrongdoers. However, some form of punishment is still in order.
punishment can be used as a way to send a message to other people not to commit the same crime.
giving wrongdoers help, so they can learn to get along in society and follow its rules.
Justice is fairness; Any inequalities in a social system should favour the least well off, because this levels the playing field of society.
Instead of making the wrong doer suffer, the focus is on making amends.
The only way for justice to be satisfied is for a wrong doer to suffer in proportion to the way he's made others suffer.
Different definitions of culture
(There are hundreds of definitions.)
"Includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom and any capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of society."
Belief, art, law, morals, custom ect.
Culture; Everything that humans have created
Terms within culture
Cultural dynamism; Global shifts in culture that affect people and their identity
Acculturation; adoption of another culture peacefully. Implying elements of your culture to another culture peacefully.
Culture; Shared knowledge, further transmitted to a community or on a broader scale.
Beef: If our identity is informed by our interactions and our choices, how do we ever form our identity if we need a little bit of it to make choices in the first place.
We will interact without identity, as babies. This allows us to build a base in which we can then form opinions of and make choices.
Beef: How will being only able to perceive the world and not interact with it effect identity?
Links to social determinism, our identity is constructed by society.
Identity comes from our relationship with others and our interactions.
It is informed by our choices in how we interact with others
"Culture of reason through objects such as might afford materials for the necessary concepts."
Practising morality is a necessary condition for happiness.
Kant distinguished civilisation and culture.
Rousseau believes culture is corrupted. Whereas 'Nature' is natural and non-corrupted. The 'natural man' is modest and fair, they live in nature with animals and people in harmony.