Section 2 – Topic 2 – Group and Team Dynamics in Sport (Formation of…
Section 2 – Topic 2 – Group and Team Dynamics in Sport
Preventing Social Loafing
Social support from team mates as well as peer pressure can reduce likelihood of
Small sides games and sub-team practices may improve co-ordination and
interaction reducing co-ordination losses.
Giving clear verbal feedback to team members about their performance.
Team members should be considered and selected on how they interact so that
co-ordination losses are reduced.
Highlighting individual performance to make all team members feel important.
Actual productivity = Actual Productivity - Losses due to faulty processes
Model of Group Effectiveness
Lack of communication between players resulting in poor coordination and teammates not working together
Poor leadership which doesn't motivate the team members
Poor team tactics and strategies
Ringleman effect - Individual performance decreased due to a larger group size
The Ringleman effect
Decrease in performance due to a loss of coordination and motivation
However, the main cause was judged to be due to a loss of individual motivation also termed social loafing
Performance increases as the group size increases
Rope pull experiment by Alan Ingham (1974) - A group of 8 rope pullers only pulled 4 times the strength of a single rope puller
Team performance / productivity is decreased by social loafing and a lack of individual motivation
Learned helplessness - due to a low self confidence
Lack of identifiable roles for team members
Injury & illness of players
Lack of team cohesion due to disputes or a belief that some players aren't trying.
Audiences / crowds criticizing performers leading to a drop in motivation
Formation of Groups
Cliques are formed and there may be power struggles
Group members jostle for positions within the group
Leaders may receive challenges from other group members
Important decisions increasingly made as a group rather than individuals making them
Friendly and social atmosphere within the group
Clearer roles and responsibilities which are generally accepted
Individuals are getting to know each other
Individual roles are unclear
High dependence on leader for guidance
Disagreements are resolved between team members
More strategies and a clear vision of how to achieve clear aims
Team members trusted to get on with the task with no interference from leader
The total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group
Individual Attraction - how attracted individuals are to be apart of that group
Group Integration - how individuals feel about the group as a whole
A collection of people who have a common identity and who interact and communicate with each other to help them achieve a common goal.