Cultural Systems Engineering (Culture (can be studied (Systematically,…
Cultural Systems Engineering
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Examples of Aesthetics
Theories of Aesthetics
Philosophical Theories of Art
can be traced back to ancient philosophers like
Critique of Judgement. Emphasize "disinterested judgement"
Coined the term "aesthetics"
"General Taste" and "Particular humors"
The relationship between psychological thought and physical response
Fechner's "experimental aesthetics"
Emphasizes physical/pictorial features
HomeHero Fire Extinguisher
The Touch Messenger
Emphasizes symbolic meaning
Emphasizes social meaning. Related to symbolic but not the same
Natural Selection Theories
Emphasizes evolutionary adaptation/survival of a species
Sexual Selection Theories
Emphasizes mating opportunity of individuals
No single definition Really depends on the context and other factors. What is "aesthetic" or "beautiful" is what the individuals feel and report about it.
The Golden Proportion
The Parthenon at Athens
The human ear (golden spiral)
widely show in architecture, nature, and in beauty judgements
for balance, emphasis, symbolism, emotional connotation, psychosomatic effects
Color symbolism. e.g. Funeral color is black in U.S. but white in India/China/ancient Rome/medieval France
Standards of beauty are set by both nature and culture.
Attractive faces are preferred by infants of 3-6 months old
Is symmetry attractive?
Averaged is attractive. Galton's composite portraits of criminals, TB patients
What is Metaphysics?
Existence, Truth, Above/Beyond Physics
Metaphysics in Art and Design
13 is considered unlucky in American culture
8 is a lucky number in China
4 is not a lucky number
Week: ISO vs. USA definition (Sunday)
Day of the dead
Uses rational, systematic, speculative, reflective methods
Thales of Miletus
Thought the world is round like a disc, floating on water
Water is the most basic element
Called "the first philosopher" by Aristotle
No divine concept or supernatural thinking
Anaximander of Miletus
One of the first Westerners to draw a map of the world.
can be studied
is not limited to
is defined by
Cultivate, Cultivated products and activities
Self-identification (reading, music, sports, career fair etc.)
Group with learned, shared, distinguishing characteristics that are not mainly economical, political but are "aesthetic", "ethic" and "metaphysical".
Can be compared using
Hofstede's 6-dimensional Cultural Framework
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Indulgence vs. Self-restraint
Power Distance (Strength of social hierarchy)
Long-term orientation vs. short-term
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Gannon's Cultural Metaphors
Industrial and Operations Engineering
find better ways to design, develop, and manage systems
Safer and more user friendly
More economically viable, More profitable
Better organizational structure
Better Product Design
User of math/methods
Use of computers/info tech support
Behavioral Research Methods
Rational, speculative, systematic, reflective
Fundamental and Specific Issues
No measurement of brain waves, heart rate etc.
Age, Gender, Education level, marital/parental status, income level etc.
No ordering. Is subjective. e.g. What does Bob's nationality look like?
Not reliable for long lists
More reliable than simple ranking, but not practical for long lists
Scale, usually from 1 to another number like 10
Scale with a meaning assigned to each number
A scale with two opposite adjectives
Rank-Sum based Interval Scaling
Matching numbers to one's strength of psychological response. e.g. line length est.
Using intensities of stimuli in one modality to observer apparent intensities in another. e.g. hand grip force to measure pain
Ethnographic Studies (live within environment for long time)
Marketing Data Analysis
Quantitative analysis of interaction patterns (eye movement, head movement hand movement etc.)
Quantitative analysis of text material
The experimental investigation of how sensation or perception changes as a function of certain clearly identified and quantitative dimensions of the physical stimuli
Fechner: Father of Psychophysics
Method of Limits
Present in ascending or descending order to find "transition point"
Simple to do but people tend to guess
Method of Constant Stimuli
Present stimuli in random orders
Less likely to guess but have to do regression
Method of Adjustment
Subject adjusts the stimuli to detect RL or DL
Absolute Threshold (RL)
Difference Threshold (DL)
Just noticeable difference
Psychophysical Magnitude Functions
Loudness as a function of sound frequency and intensity
Equal Sensation Contours