Type of Nonverbal Communication (Kinesics (means “movement,” and refers to…
Type of Nonverbal Communication
means “movement,” and refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements.
Gestures. There are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators.
Head Movements and Posture used to acknowledge others and communicate interest or attentiveness.
Eye Contact where people typically think others are “located,” which is right behind the eyes.
Facial Expressions. Much research has supported the universality of a core group of facial expressions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust.
refers to the study of communication by touch.
There are several types of touch, including functional-professional, social-polite, friendship-warmth, love-intimacy, and sexual-arousal touch.
Types of hug: crisscross hug, neck-waist hug, shake-first-then-tap, slap hug
is the study of paralanguage, which includes the vocal qualities that go along with verbal messages, such as pitch, volume, rate, vocal quality, and verbal fillers.
Pitch helps convey meaning, regulate conversational flow, and communicate the intensity of a message.
Volume helps communicate intensity.
Speaking rate refers to how fast or slow a person speaks and can lead others to form impressions about our emotional state, credibility, and intelligence.
Tone of voice. Each voice has a distinct quality known as a vocal signature.
refers to the study of how space and distance influence communication.
We all have varying definitions of what our “personal space” is, and these definitions are contextual and depend on the situation and the relationship. Although our bubbles are invisible, people are socialized into the norms of personal space within their cultural group.
Public Space (12 Feet or More), Social Space (4–12 Feet), Personal Space (1.5–4 Feet), Intimate Space
Territoriality is an innate drive to take up and defend spaces.
refers to the study of how time affects communication.
Time can be classified into several different categories, including biological, personal, physical, and cultural time.
Personal Presentation and Environment
Personal presentation involves two components: our physical characteristics and the artifacts with which we adorn and surround ourselves.