Learning to Work Creatively With Knowledge (Soft skills: Described on…
Learning to Work Creatively With Knowledge
Described on 1000s of web-pages (communication skills, thinking skills etc), hard to define, time consuming&difficult to teach
Only known way:
. Being placed in environment where the skills are needed and practiced
Two kinds of knowledge:
: Testing theories, learning about perceived facts. Main focus in schooling.
: How to do something useful with ideas
Design mode - activities exist in school, but most resulting in non-conceptual artifacts, that is, ides behind artifacts are belief-mode ideas
Design mode should be put in center in schooling, learning about the ever ongoing improvement of ideas and artifacts
Four studied approaches to schooling in design mode
Learning by design
(at Georgia tech)
Science was first taught, then task was given. Deprived students of inquire based on experienced problems.
To engage in deep scientific principles, projects tend to be to complicated to actually being built by the students (e.g. design an artificial organ). Thus forced connection between activity and theory
Learning by design can not be expected to lead to direct engagement in creation and improvement of underlying theoretical ideas
Project based science
(University of Michigan)
Student designed inquiry
investigations to answer driving questions
use of technology
creation of authentic artifacts representing understanding
Crucial: investigation to... absent in most project work. More often relies on authoritarian sources. But there is a potential
The ongoing work should make students ask questions. Teachers should not bring them to the table. Problematic in project-based Science as answering original question brings project to an end
Problem based learning
(Southern Illinois University)
Aims at not answering question, but solving problem. Originates from medic student simulating meeting patients with unknown disease
Makes iterative process to improve results possible.
Primary education, unlike medicine school has a problem with presenting a problem that will seem relevant to all students later in life.
Except solving problems they will encounter later in education!
(Ontario Institute for...)
Def.: creative work with ideas that really matter to the people doing the work.
To advance ones
frontiers of knowledge
Important to identify frontiers and possible advance. Students must learn to do it for themselves
Ideas: Present and improve
Problems over questions. Preferable problems of generality
Knowledge of value to community, although not purpose to outsmart Newton
Emergent goals and products, although not always tangible products.
Constructive use of authoritative sources. All ideas are improvable
Applies to all, e.g. first graders and scientists
Young students show interest in working with ideas. Examples at
Not bound to particular activity structures. Can incorporate activities that are found in the other approaches, but with the basic idea of expanding frontiers of one's perceived knowledge
ICT as primary environment, e.g. Knowledge Forum®
Knowledge building is context-general and allows for expanding ideas, collaboration and being part of development of the age of knowledge. Thus it is the best suited approach of the four discussed