Nonverbal Communication is a process of generating meaning using behavior…
Nonverbal Communication is a process of generating meaning using behavior other than words.
Connections to Verbal Comm.:
Nonverbal is right brained, verbal is left.
Nonverbal is better at communicating emotion, verbal better for facts.
Works hand in hand with verbal, rather than opposed
Principles of Nonverbal comm.
Nonverbal comm is biologically based while verbal comm is culturally based.
Most nonverbal comm is universally recognised
Nonverbal comm evolved first and helped verbal communication progress
Nonverbal comm is processed in an older part of the brain than verbal comm.
Roughly 65% of meaning is derived from nonverbal comm.
Nonverbal comm is less voluntary than verbal comm and control of it is difficult to fully master.
Nonverbal comm is more ambiguous, but also seen as more credible because it's harder to fake.
Functions of nonverbal comm.
Nonverbal comm can influence the perceptions and even the actions of others.
Nonverbal comm regulates the flow of conversation
Nonverbal comm conveys meaning alongside, or in contradiction of, verbal communication.
Nonverbal comm has a large impact on relationships and relationship status.
Oculesics: the study of eye behavior.
Haptics: the study of communication via touch.
Kinesics: refers to the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements.
Proxemics: the study of how space and distance influence communication.
Proxemic distances: the various definitions we hold of personal space across different contexts and relationships.
Immediacy behaviors: verbal and nonverbal behaviors that lessen real or perceived physical and psychological distance between communicators and include things like smiling, nodding, making eye contact, and occasional touch.
Territoriality: an innate drive to take up and defend spaces.
Tie signs: nonverbal cues that communicate intimacy and signal the connection between two people.
Chronemics: refers to the study of how time affects communication.
Paralanguage: the vocalized but not verbal part of a spoken message, such as speaking rate, volume, tone of voice, and pitch.
Emblems: gestures that have a specific agreed-on meaning.
Illustrators: the most common type of gesture and are used to illustrate the verbal message they accompany.
Adaptors: touching behaviors and movements that indicate internal states typically related to arousal or anxiety.
Vocalics: the study of paralanguage, which includes the vocal qualities that go along with verbal messages, such as pitch, volume, rate, vocal quality, and verbal fillers.
Accenting: Vocalic cues allow us to emphasize particular parts of a message, which helps determine meaning
Substituting: Vocalic cues can take the place of other verbal or nonverbal cues
Complementing:Vocalic cues elaborate on or modify verbal and nonverbal meaning (e.g., the pitch and volume used to say “I love sweet potatoes” would add context to the meaning of the sentence, such as the degree to which the person loves sweet potatoes or the use of sarcasm).
Regulating: Vocalic cues help regulate the flow of conversations (e.g., falling pitch and slowing rate of speaking usually indicate the end of a speaking turn).
Repetition: Vocalic cues reinforce other verbal and nonverbal cues
Contradicting: Vocalic cues may contradict other verbal or nonverbal signals (e.g., a person could say “I’m fine” in a quick, short tone that indicates otherwise).