Chemical Compounds in Cells (Carbohydrates (Energy-rich organic compound…
Chemical Compounds in Cells
Elements and compounds
When 2 or more elements combine chemically, they form a compound
Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Some important groups of organic compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Elements that don't contain the element carbon are call inorganic compounds
Organic compounds contain carbon which are commonly in living things
Water and sodium chloride, or table salt are common inorganic compounds
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Sugars and starches are examples of carbohydrates
Sugar molecules can combine to make a large molecule called starches or complex carbohydrates
These food include bread, potatoes, pasta, and rice
Fats, oils, and waxes are all lipids
Lipids contain even more energy than carbohydrates
Energy-rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Structure and Proteins
Protein molecules are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids
Cells can combine amino acids to form thousands of different proteins.
The kinds of amino acids and the order in which they link together determine the type of protein that forms
Functions and Proteins
Proteins make up many organelles within a cell
An enzyme is a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
Without enzymes, many chemical reactions that are important for life would either take too long or not happen at all
Large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur.
Nucleic Acids are very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Nucleic acids contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
Deoxyribonucleic acid/ DNA
The genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed form parent to offspring
Found in the chromatin in the nucleus
Ribonucleic acid/ RNA
Plays a important role in the production of proteins
Found in the cytoplasm also in the nucleus
Water and Living Things
Most chemical reactions within cells could not take place without water
Water also helps cells keep their size and shape
Since water changes temp. slowly, it helps keep the the temp. of cells form changing rapidly.