Foodborne pathogens of seafood and their antibiotic resistance (Case…
Foodborne pathogens of seafood and their antibiotic resistance
Introduction to antibiotics
What is an antibiotic?
An antibiotic is a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Another name for them is antibacterials.
When were antibiotics discovered?
Antibiotics were discovered in 1928.By a scientist named Alexander Flemming. The first antibiotic was pencillin which is still used today to treat infection.
How do antibiotics work?
Antibiotics kill or inhibit a bacteria's by interfering with the formation of the cell wall or its contents
Stops bacteria from multiplying
Antibiotics are a necessary medicine which sometimes are life saving
Antibiotics can upset your natural gut microbiota and lead to other health problems with continued use
What is a food borne pathogen?
A food borne pathogen is any substance that contaminates food causing illness
E.coli is normally found in the intestines of normal humans and animals. It is a gram negative straight rod and is motile through the use of flagellae. E.coli is also a non spore former. It is an aerobe and a facultive anaerobe with an optimum growth temperature of 37 degrees (body temp)
Escherichia coli can trigger diarrhea but the strain O157:H7 produces a powerful toxin that affects the small intestine resulting in bloody diarrhea. This strain can be ingested by eating an undercooked hamburger or drinking contaminated water
. is a gram negative rod shaped bacteria. It is a facultative aerobe meaning it has the potential to survive in oxygen or in absence of oxygen.
Salmonella infection, known as salmonellosis, is usually caused by ingesting undercooked meat, poultry, egg or egg products. Usually the onset takes about 72 hours. People experience diarrhea, abdominal cramps and fever.
is often found in raw poultry. This is a gram negative, spiral shaped bacteria. It is a microaerophilic organism surviving in environments at a reduced oxygen concentration of 3-5%. It is a non spore former.
. is known to be the number one source of gastroenteritis infection in humans in the world. The disease state as a result of this bacteria is known as Campylobacteriosis. Symptoms are generally mild but can be fatal for particular high risk groups.
What is antibiotic resistance and its dangers
How did antibiotic resistance come about?
Antibiotic resistance is becoming more and more of a problem in recent times. It happens because of people not using a course of antibiotics properly ie: not completing the course or not taking the right one. This causes the bacteria in question to survive and thus developing a resistance over time.
Why is this dangerous?
This is a threat because if the current trends continue, simple, treatable diseases such as pneumonia or the common cold may become incurable.
Is there an alternative to antibiotics?
Several studies have looked into natural alternatives as a way of inhibiting or killing pathogenic bacteria. Herbs and essential oils to name but a few, which are both known to have antibacterial properties
Multi-site analysis reveals widespread antibiotic resistance in the marine pathogen Vibrio vulnificus (2009)
Antibiotic Resistance in Seafood‐Borne Pathogens (2017)
Seafood and their pathogens
Types of seafood
Mollusks such as clams and oysters.
Crustaceans such as shrimp and lobsters.
Fish such as tuna and herring
What kind of pathogens are associated with seafood?
Vibro, Salmonella and Listeria are three common food borne illnesses associated with fish
This is a gram positive non spore forming, motile, facultatively, anaerobic rod shaped bacterium
Listeria causes muscle cramps, fever and flu like symptoms
This is a non enveloped, single stranded RNA virus. It is a highly infectious enteric virus
The Norovirus causes abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea
This is a gram negative curved rod bacteria and is mainly associated with undercooked seafood
Vibrio causes watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps and vomiting