Class differences in achievements (Internal Factors (Pupil subcultures…
Class differences in achievements
These are factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions with pupils and teachers, and inequalities between schools and labeling.
To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition do and this is exactly what teachers do to students but they have different labels for different students. middle class are labelled positively and they label working class negatively. Howard Becker found that teacher judge students on how closely they fit to the ideal pupil.
Self fulfilling- rosenthol and jacobsen
A fulfilling prophecy is a prophecy that simply becomes true just because someone said it and this is the case with working class students with labeling and because of that some of them will fail. however with middle class students their self fulfilling prophecy is positive in that they are believed to be successful.
Pupil subculture is a group of pupils who share similar values and this gives teachers an idea of what group to put them in. Colin Laceys concepts of differentiation and polarization
Differentiation is the process that teachers categorize pupils on their behavior and attitude. Those who are deemed as more able are given high status knowledge by being in a high stream but those who are deemed as less able are placed in lower streams and are given inferior status
Polarization on the other hand is the process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of the two opposite poles.
Triage means sorting but they use war terms to do it and only the medics can choose. for example(1) the "walking wounded" this are people who are ignored because we know they can survive.(2) those who will die anyway, these people are ignored because they have no chance of survival and there is no point treating them.(3) those with a chance of survival, these people can be treated and can be successfully healed. but this into educational terms and 1 and 2 are working class and 3 is middle class.
External Factors -
He believes that there are four key features that act as a barrier to educational achievements:
- whatever will be will be, you can't do anything to change your status.
- valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual.
- seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future.
Present time orientation
- seeing the present as more important than the future and so not having long term goals.
External Factors are factors outside of the education system such as the influence of home and family background and wider society.
Attitudes and values-
Parents attitudes and values are a key factor affecting educational achievements. working class parents placed less value on education, were less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragement. As a result their children had lower levels of achievement motivation.
Elaborate code - is typically used by the middle class. It has a wider vocabulary and is based on longer complex sentences. The elaborate code is context free.
Restricted code - is the the speech code typically used by working class. It has a limited vocabulary and is based on the use of short or often unfinished sentences.
Nell keddie however sees cultural derivation as a myth and that it is actually victim blaming. he believes that it is the system should be blamed because they are put at a disadvantage by the system. he believes that working class children are culturally different not culturally deprived.
Other people agree with Nell Keddie for example Barry Troyna and Jenny Williams argue that the problem is not with the child's language but the schools attitude towards it. this is because teachers label students for example middle class being high and working class being low.
However according to the theorists it depends on what background you come from for example working class fail to socialize their children adequately. these children grow up culturally deprived meaning they lack the cultural equipment needed to do well at school.
cultural deprivation theorists argue that most of us begin to acquire basic values, attitudes and skills that are needed for education success through primary socialization in the family we learn from them language and reasoning skills. However according to the theorists this would only work foe middle class people.
Housing - poor housing can affect pupils achievements both directly and indirectly. for example overcrowding in the house.
Housing - hoising is a big problem because some working class people are living in places which are unfit to live in and this could be bnad for big familis which are working class people.
Diet - having a poor diet can depend on how well they do at school if it is a poor diet they lack the energy to think at school which means they learn less things during their day at school. this normally applies to working class people
Money - A lack of money could lead to bad education and this is because o a fear of debt that parents have when their children are in education. this is because they have to pay for uniform and school meals and school itself but the worst on is university when they want to be on their own but cant because accommodation is too expensive.
Money - lack of financial support means that children from poor families have to cope without equipment and miss out on experiences that would enhance their educational achievements.
Diet and Health - Howard says that young people from poorer homes have less energy, This may result in more absences from school due to illness and difficulties concentrating in class.
Many sociologists think that material deprivation is the main reason for underachieving. Material deprivation refers to poverty and lack of material necessities.