The High-Performance manager has approached you to conduct research on how…
The High-Performance manager has approached you to conduct research on how to implement one of the following strategies: Psychology Skills
Watch an expert. To see how the individual completes task. This improves internal motivation within player
Watch a novice; class based. Solve problems and learn from them
Visual perception is been able to interpret the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular).
Kohl, R. and Roenker, D. (1983). Mechanism Involvement During Skill Imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 15(2), pp.179-190.
Imagery is also called visualization or mental rehearsal. Imagery means using all of your senses (e.g., see, feel, hear, taste, smell) to rehearse your sport in your mind.
Why use imagery?
For setting and achieving goals
Controlling emotions, activation anxiety and anger
For coping with unexpected events and problems
Developing self awareness and self confidence
Not physically fatiguing
Avoids risk of injury
Can practise anytime
Offers a change in pace
Breaks monotony of physical practise
Self-talk interventions on task performance
Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Galanis, E. and Theodorakis, Y. (2011). Self-Talk and Sports Performance. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(4), pp.348-356.
Conscious and Subconscious
Micklewright, D., Kegerreis, S., Raglin, J. and Hettinga, F. (2016). Will the Conscious–Subconscious Pacing Quagmire Help Elucidate the Mechanisms of Self-Paced Exercise? New Opportunities in Dual Process Theory and Process Tracing Methods. Sports Medicine, 47(7), pp.1231-1239.
Improving Motor performance
Theodorakis, Y., Weinberg, R., Natsis, P., Douma, I. and Kazakas, P. (2000). The Effects of Motivational versus Instructional Self-Talk on Improving Motor Performance. The Sport Psychologist, 14(3), pp.253-271.
Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Mpoumpaki, S. and Theodorakis, Y. (2009). Mechanisms underlying the self-talk–performance relationship: The effects of motivational self-talk on self-confidence and anxiety. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), pp.186-192.
Impact your confidence
Benabou, R. and Tirole, J. (2002). Self-Confidence and Personal Motivation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(3), pp.871-915.
Happy, Motivated, Optimist, Encouraged, Strong, Determined
S.M.A.R.T. Specificity, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Timely
What is goal setting
Achieve goals and prioritizing
Locke, E. and Latham, G. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), pp.705-717.
e.g. race (time)and weightlifting (velocity)
Information about the outcome of a skill or if goals were achieved
Information about movement characteristics
Task intrinsic Feedback
Proprioceptive (how it feels internally)
Psychologist Skill Set
Cognitive and Motivational Imagery Functions
Cognitive Specific. To learn, improve or maintain performance of specific skills. E.g. Improving performance of a tennis swing
Cognitive General. To learn, improve or maintain performance of strategies, game plans, or routines.E.g. Learning a new offense play
Motivational specific.To achieve a specific process, performance, and outcome goals. E.g. winning a race
Motivation General-Arousal. To regulate emotions, mood and arousal and anxiety. E.g. reducing precompetition anxiety
Motivational General-Mastery. To modify cognition's. E.g. Improving confidence
Psychology, S. and Skills, P. (2018). Imagery And Sport - Sports Psychology - IResearchNet. [online] Psychology.iresearchnet.com. Available at:
[Accessed 8 Oct. 2018].