Culture (Individualistic: there are sharp boundaries between people, with…
Individualistic: there are sharp boundaries between people, with each person being a complete unit (aka being independent). They are generally also thought to have rights and responsibilities that are more or less the same.
Collectivistic: people are not separate units, but rather are part and parcel of a larger group (aka people are interdependent). A person’s identity in a collectivistic society tends to be based on one’s roles and experiences within the group context
Nearly three-fourths of the world’s cultures can be described as collectivistic
Individualistic skills: self-sufficiency, self-determination, self-advocacy, self-competence, self-direction, self-efficacy, self-regulation, self-reliance, and self-responsibility.
Collectivistic skills: group-oriented values and skills that contribute to effectively filling roles within the family or other group.
In many collectivistic cultures, people of high social status may be seen as holding important cultural and technological knowledge.
Refers to a dynamic socially constructed, historically transmitted shared pattern of symbols, perceptions, values, & belief systems that involves feelings, is expressed as behavior and is heterogeneous(diverse in character or content)
In traditional collectivistic cultures, there is likely to be a social hierarchy based on gender, birth order, and/or age.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory: describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior.
Individualism: the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups and seen as interdependent or independent.
Power distance: the extent to which people accept an unequal distribution of power.
Masculinity–femininity: The degree of being feminine—valuing fluid gender roles, quality of life, service, relationships, and interdependence—and the degree of being masculine—emphasizing distinctive gender roles, ambition, materialism, and independence.
Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which uncertainty, ambiguity, and deviant ideas and behaviors are avoided.
Long-term versus short-term orientation: Reflects a cultural-group orientation toward virtue or truth. The long-term orientation emphasizes virtue, whereas the short-term orientation emphasizes truth.
All cultures seem to acknowledge that how people behave affects what will happen to them, whether in this life or a presumed afterlife.
American individualism highly values the freedom to choose for oneself.
Collectivistic cultures are more likely than individualistic ones to allow for external explanations for the cause of a good or bad event
In American individualism, people can show that they have valued characteristics such as mastery of certain skills or being able to perform under pressure by competing with and doing better than others.
From the perspective of many collectivist cultures, however, Americans are often considered too competitive and focused on material rewards
Context: neither static nor objective, and it can be multi- layered. Context may consist of the physical, social, political, and historical structures in which the communication occurs.