Compact bone: the outer part of every bone. composed of osteons that are packed together
Spongy bone: no osteons. location is at the end of long bones & inside other bones. trabeculae, osteocytes, extracellular matrix, location of red bone marrow.
Components of a long bone: proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, distal epiphysis, spongy bone, epiphyseal line, periosteum, compact bone, medullary cavity, articular cartilage, compact bone, endosteum, yellow bone marrow,
Bone: 35% organic, 65% inorganic
ligaments & tendons - dense regular connective tissue
Cartilage: elastic, fibrocartilage, and hyaline
Red Bone Marrow is the site of blood cell formation. it is a gelatinous material. As embryo/fetus, it fills all spaces inside of bones until age 7. as adults, its in vertebrae, coxal bones, sternum, ribs, and a lot of bones in skull
Yellow Bone Marrow: red bone marrow eventually becomes yellow bone marrow. yellow bone marrow is for nutrient storage
Support- framework for connection of soft tissues ( tendons & ligaments )
Movement-with help of muscle
Protection: cranium, rib cage
Mineral storage: calcium and phosphate
Blood cell formation: red bone marrow
Energy storage: yellow bone marrow
Types of bone cells
Osteogenic cells - located in periosteum
Stem cell - located in endosteum
Osteoblast is making extracellular matrix
osteocytes in lacunae are maintaining bone tissue
Osteoclasts: created from leukocytes that form one big cell.multinucleated, microvilli. They break down bone tissue called resorption, secrete enzymes, perform phagocytosis, and take inorganic minerals back to blood.
Connective Tissue Layers
Endomysium: composed mostly of reticular fibers; creates space
perimysium: covers each fascicle and is dense irregular connective tissue
Epimysium - dense irregular connective tissue - binds fascicles together
Deep fascia - binds whole muscles together. dense irregular connective tissue
Components of a Skeletal Fiber:
Sarcolemma: plasma membrane
Sarcoplasmic reticulum: storage of calcium
Terminal cisternae - storage of calcium
Mitochondria - need lots of energy
Myofibrils - muscle fibers
T - tubules- invagination of sarcolemma
Sarcomere: unit of contraction
Thin filaments - actin protein
Thick filaments - myosin protein with myosin heads
Z disc - boundaries of sarcomere
A band - dark and I band - light creates striations
Contractility - generate tension or force when pulling on an attachment point
Components of Neuromuscular Junction
Product movement: bones blood, contents of hollow organs
Open/close body passageways - sphincter muscle
maintain posture & stabilize joints
Synchondrosis: immoveable. epiphyseal plate & between 1st rib & manubrium. hyaline cartilage.
Symphysis: pubic symphysis. intervertebral joints. hyaline & fibrocartilage. slightly moveable.
Synovial Joint Composition:
Presence of a joint cavity. surrounded by a joint capsule. has 2 layers. outer layer is dense irregular connective tissue and attaches to periosteum. inner is synovial membrane mostly arealor connective tissue. the function is secrete synovial fluid, shock absorbers, and nourishes articular cartilage.
Bursa(e): sac filled with synovial fluid between tendons and bones, skin and bone, ligament and bone, and muscle and bone. it prevents things from rubbing together.
Suture: bones joined by very short interconnecting fibers. only skull. no movement.
Syndesmosis: bundles of dense regular connective tissue. distal tibiofibular joint - carpals/tarsals. little movement.
Gomphosis: between teeth & alveoli. periodontal ligaments. no movement.
Uniaxial movement: flexion and extension
Examples: elbow joint, interphalangeal joints
Nonaxial movement: gliding
Examples: intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, joints between vertebral articular surfaces
Uniaxial movement: rotation
Example: proximal radioulnar joints, atlantoaxial joint
Biaxial movement: flexion and extension; adduction and abduction
Example: metacarpophalangeal joints (knuckles), wrist joint
Example: adduction and abduction; flexion and extension
Example: carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs
Ball & Socket Joint:
Multiaxial movement:flexion and extension; adduction and abduction; rotation
Example: shoulder joints & hip joints