English Study Notes (Persuasive language Devices and Techniques (metaphors…
English Study Notes
Persuasive language Devices and Techniques
repetition of the inital constanant sound
a comparison of things that are similar in some way
repetition of a word or phrase "I have.....I have......i have"
seems appealing to peoples personalities and interests
a short interesting story about someone used to make a connection with the audience
tests that 'attacks' or insults a person (usually using negative language)
to direct with authority
comparatives and superlatives
- a strong person-describes things ,
- a stronger person or more worried-compares things,
-the strongest person or the weakest-states or imply's that something is the highest or lowest quality
words or phrases that makes the audience feel something
a figure of speech that dramatizes the topic
saying nice things to get the reader on your side
a statement made everyone or everything based on limited evidence
raising a question to maintain curiosity
imagery/ descriptive language
'a picture painted with words
a contract between what is expected and what actually happens
metaphors & similes
a degree of certainty expressed by the author eg. high modality = high certainty, low modality = low certainty
opinion as fact/assertion
to present beliefs as if they were true
apparently contradictory words placed near each other eg. 'larger half', 'plastic glasses
giving human qualities to non living things eg. the stars danced playfully in the moon lit sky
Problem solution format
uses language to clearly identify a problem them quickly follows it with a solution
the use of collective pronouns (eg. we feel that, surely you can see) makes the audience feel involved and important this builds the relationship between the audience and the author
a 'play on words' or a phrase that has two meanings eg. what do you call a pig that does karate..... A PORK CHOP
to prove something is false
using a word or phrase lots of times eg. I know..... I know....I know
a question that does not require or is not expected to recive an answer eg.'isn't the solution obvious?'
including specific facts to support an argument
the use of vocabulary that is specific to a particular trade or group. when used this indicates the author is a part of the specific group so the audience assumes the author is an 'expert'
a three part series with units equal in length eg. "I came, I saw, I conquered" Julius Ceaser
triples/ rule of threes
to repeat an idea or image three times, usually in slightly different ways eg. 'hunting is cruel, evil and outdated
a figure of speech that makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is eg. 'hitting that pole certainly didn't do that car any good
Parts of speech song (courtesy of Mrs McCormick)
every name is called a Noun
as field and fountain street and town
in place of a Noun a Pronoun stands
as he or she can clap their hands
an adjective describes a thing
a magic wand of bridal ring
a Verb means action something done
to read to write to jump to run
how things are done the adverb tells
quickly, slowly, badly, well
a Preposition shows relation
as in the street or at the station
the Interjection cries out hark
I need an exclamation mark
repetition of initial constants
a simile is a comparison using 'like' or 'as'
a metaphor is a comparison without using 'like' or 'as'
The use of specific objects to stand for more general and abstract
informal, acceptable 'everyday' language
The emotional feeling experienced by readers as they move through parts of a text
how to write a review
a)camera shots (for films)
b) P.O.V (for novels)
Static - still
image - picture
a poster is a static image
D.I (dominant image)
eg. busy, plain, light, dark
different colors are associated with different things eg. blue can be represent sadness
amount of light
Font style & size
the name of the static image
Main text part of a text that describes the product or service
separate ideas in the body copy
language techniques eg. alliteration, simile ect...
Static images need to grab attention
Static Images have visual techniques/language (things you see) and verbal techniques/language (things that are written)
things to think about when analyzing a static image
Who/What is being advertised/presented (product/service)
who is the target audience. Is the product/service for Kids, Adults,
Teenagers, Infants, Elderly. who would be most interested in this
What is the overall idea we are intended to get from the text (whats the message)
how to structure a paragraph
a) this essay will
insert the essay question
b) the purpose of this essay is to
insert the essay question
List the three main points (in chronological order)
P1 - P, E, A, R
P2- P, E, A, R
P3- P, E, A, R
in conclusion the theme of acceptance is shown throughout the film by characters,
the director of the film uses these elements of the film to teach the audience
insert essay question
Barnum's character summaries the overall message when she says "no one ever made a difference by being like everyone else"
example essay question 'describe the theme of acceptance in the
film the greatest showman
reading between the lines
thinking beyond the words
finding a deeper meaning of a text
using evidence to reach a conclusion
sounds the characters can hear eg. gunshot
sound the characters cannot hear eg. background music
low light = hard to see mysterious
high light = expose the whole shot so the audience can see everything
certain lights are used for specific things eg. spotlights create the appearance of the character but can also be used to create a silhouette through a screen
changing the camera angle
to cut fade in or out eg. jump cut, dissolve, cross fade ect..
often used to show change in time
types of shots
Sets the scene eg. panoramic, landscape
shows the whole subject with room to spare at the top and bottom of the frame
Shows the figure from the waist up
shows two people in a medium or long shot used to demonstrate a conversation
extreme close up
Point of view- seeing through the characters eyes
medium close up
head and chest
Over the shoulder
viewing from behind the character
shows the head used to show emotion
shows the side of the face potentially hiding the other side of the face to keep a secret eg. a burn or scar or injury
makes the character seem small and weak
makes the character look big and powerful and strong
understanding text structures can help you figure out important points
key ideas and details
point of view
cause and effect
Text- Anything made up with words
Genre- The type of book eg. romance, Action, Thriller ect...
Author- the writer of the book
narrator- the person who tells the story
character- the people in the story
Setting- the location and time period of the story
style- features of the authors writting
narritive- the storyline
plot- main events that happen in the story (when listed use chronological order) eg. baby born, baby stolen, baby dies
P.O.V (Point of view)- the person who's eyes we see the story through
Theme- issues/messages explored through the text
Backstory- Everything that happens before the Story begins eg.the childhood of an adult character in the story
Objectives- the character peruses the objective
Actions- the way the character achieves the objective
is your character a protagonist (the main character)
is your character the antagonist (the "bad guy")
Key elements of a short story
a person in a novel, play, or film.
synonyms: persona, person, role, part; dramatis personae
a part played by an actor.
a person seen in terms of a particular aspect of character.
a person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversary.
"the woman was forcing her antagonist's face into the mud"
synonyms: adversary, opponent, enemy, foe, nemesis, rival, competitor, contender
the leading character or one of the major characters in a play, film, novel, etc.
"the novel's main protagonist is an American intelligence officer"
an advocate or champion of a particular cause or idea.
"he's a strenuous protagonist of the new agricultural policy"
synonyms: supporter, upholder, adherent, backer, proponent, advocate, promoter, champion, exponent, standard-bearer, torch-bearer, prime mover, moving spirit, mainstay
a serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one.
the action of solving a problem or contentious matter.
Start - Middle - Finish
eg. the purpose of the short story licked is to entertain
the main events of a play, novel, film, or similar work, devised and presented by the writer as an interrelated sequence.
"the plot consists almost entirely of a man and woman falling in love"
synonyms: storyline, story, chain of events, scenario, action, thread
the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place.
"a romantic house in a wonderful setting beside the River Wye"
synonyms: surroundings, position, situation, environment, background, backdrop
the subject of a talk, piece of writing, exhibition, etc.; a topic.
"the theme of the sermon was reverence"
synonyms: subject, topic, subject matter
eg. the theme of this story is 'don't judge a book by it's cover'
terms of speech
elements of the text
what happens in the story
where and when the story takes place
the people in the story. characters may have a main or minor role in the texts
The one who tells the story. not necessarily the author
the authors reason for writing
the Particular group of people the author aims the text at
the main event
first person narration- when the story is written using 'I'. the reader is made aware of the thoughts of only that character
Third person narration- pronouns such as he, she, they, them are used to tell the story