English Study Notes (Persuasive language Devices and Techniques (metaphors…
English Study Notes
Persuasive language Devices and Techniques
a figure of speech that makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is eg. 'hitting that pole certainly didn't do that car any good
triples/ rule of threes
to repeat an idea or image three times, usually in slightly different ways eg. 'hunting is cruel, evil and outdated
a three part series with units equal in length eg. "I came, I saw, I conquered" Julius Ceaser
the use of vocabulary that is specific to a particular trade or group. when used this indicates the author is a part of the specific group so the audience assumes the author is an 'expert'
including specific facts to support an argument
a question that does not require or is not expected to recive an answer eg.'isn't the solution obvious?'
using a word or phrase lots of times eg. I know..... I know....I know
to prove something is false
a 'play on words' or a phrase that has two meanings eg. what do you call a pig that does karate..... A PORK CHOP
the use of collective pronouns (eg. we feel that, surely you can see) makes the audience feel involved and important this builds the relationship between the audience and the author
Problem solution format
uses language to clearly identify a problem them quickly follows it with a solution
giving human qualities to non living things eg. the stars danced playfully in the moon lit sky
apparently contradictory words placed near each other eg. 'larger half', 'plastic glasses
opinion as fact/assertion
to present beliefs as if they were true
a degree of certainty expressed by the author eg. high modality = high certainty, low modality = low certainty
metaphors & similes
a contract between what is expected and what actually happens
imagery/ descriptive language
'a picture painted with words
raising a question to maintain curiosity
a statement made everyone or everything based on limited evidence
saying nice things to get the reader on your side
a figure of speech that dramatizes the topic
words or phrases that makes the audience feel something
comparatives and superlatives
- a strong person-describes things ,
- a stronger person or more worried-compares things,
-the strongest person or the weakest-states or imply's that something is the highest or lowest quality
to direct with authority
tests that 'attacks' or insults a person (usually using negative language)
a short interesting story about someone used to make a connection with the audience
seems appealing to peoples personalities and interests
repetition of a word or phrase "I have.....I have......i have"
a comparison of things that are similar in some way
repetition of the inital constanant sound
Parts of speech song (courtesy of Mrs McCormick)
every name is called a Noun
as field and fountain street and town
in place of a Noun a Pronoun stands
as he or she can clap their hands
an adjective describes a thing
a magic wand of bridal ring
a Verb means action something done
to read to write to jump to run
how things are done the adverb tells
quickly, slowly, badly, well
a Preposition shows relation
as in the street or at the station
the Interjection cries out hark
I need an exclamation mark
things to think about when analyzing a static image
What is the overall idea we are intended to get from the text (whats the message)
who is the target audience. Is the product/service for Kids, Adults,
Teenagers, Infants, Elderly. who would be most interested in this
Who/What is being advertised/presented (product/service)
Static Images have visual techniques/language (things you see) and verbal techniques/language (things that are written)
Static images need to grab attention
language techniques eg. alliteration, simile ect...
separate ideas in the body copy
Main text part of a text that describes the product or service
the name of the static image
Font style & size
amount of light
different colors are associated with different things eg. blue can be represent sadness
eg. busy, plain, light, dark
D.I (dominant image)
a poster is a static image
image - picture
Static - still
The emotional feeling experienced by readers as they move through parts of a text
informal, acceptable 'everyday' language
The use of specific objects to stand for more general and abstract
a metaphor is a comparison without using 'like' or 'as'
a simile is a comparison using 'like' or 'as'
repetition of initial constants
how to write a review
b) P.O.V (for novels)
a)camera shots (for films)
example essay question 'describe the theme of acceptance in the
film the greatest showman
in conclusion the theme of acceptance is shown throughout the film by characters,
the director of the film uses these elements of the film to teach the audience
insert essay question
Barnum's character summaries the overall message when she says "no one ever made a difference by being like everyone else"
P3- P, E, A, R
P2- P, E, A, R
P1 - P, E, A, R
List the three main points (in chronological order)
b) the purpose of this essay is to
insert the essay question
a) this essay will
insert the essay question
how to structure a paragraph
using evidence to reach a conclusion
finding a deeper meaning of a text
thinking beyond the words
reading between the lines
makes the character look big and powerful and strong
makes the character seem small and weak
shows the side of the face potentially hiding the other side of the face to keep a secret eg. a burn or scar or injury
types of shots
shows the head used to show emotion
Over the shoulder
viewing from behind the character
medium close up
head and chest
extreme close up
Point of view- seeing through the characters eyes
shows two people in a medium or long shot used to demonstrate a conversation
Shows the figure from the waist up
shows the whole subject with room to spare at the top and bottom of the frame
Sets the scene eg. panoramic, landscape
often used to show change in time
to cut fade in or out eg. jump cut, dissolve, cross fade ect..
changing the camera angle
certain lights are used for specific things eg. spotlights create the appearance of the character but can also be used to create a silhouette through a screen
high light = expose the whole shot so the audience can see everything
low light = hard to see mysterious
sound the characters cannot hear eg. background music
sounds the characters can hear eg. gunshot
understanding text structures can help you figure out important points
cause and effect
point of view
key ideas and details
is your character the antagonist (the "bad guy")
is your character a protagonist (the main character)
Actions- the way the character achieves the objective
Objectives- the character peruses the objective
Backstory- Everything that happens before the Story begins eg.the childhood of an adult character in the story
Theme- issues/messages explored through the text
P.O.V (Point of view)- the person who's eyes we see the story through
plot- main events that happen in the story (when listed use chronological order) eg. baby born, baby stolen, baby dies
narritive- the storyline
style- features of the authors writting
Setting- the location and time period of the story
character- the people in the story
narrator- the person who tells the story
Author- the writer of the book
Genre- The type of book eg. romance, Action, Thriller ect...
Text- Anything made up with words
terms of speech
Third person narration- pronouns such as he, she, they, them are used to tell the story
first person narration- when the story is written using 'I'. the reader is made aware of the thoughts of only that character
elements of the text
the main event
the Particular group of people the author aims the text at
the authors reason for writing
The one who tells the story. not necessarily the author
the people in the story. characters may have a main or minor role in the texts
where and when the story takes place
what happens in the story
Key elements of a short story
eg. the theme of this story is 'don't judge a book by it's cover'
synonyms: subject, topic, subject matter
"the theme of the sermon was reverence"
the subject of a talk, piece of writing, exhibition, etc.; a topic.
synonyms: surroundings, position, situation, environment, background, backdrop
"a romantic house in a wonderful setting beside the River Wye"
the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place.
synonyms: storyline, story, chain of events, scenario, action, thread
"the plot consists almost entirely of a man and woman falling in love"
the main events of a play, novel, film, or similar work, devised and presented by the writer as an interrelated sequence.
eg. the purpose of the short story licked is to entertain
Start - Middle - Finish
the action of solving a problem or contentious matter.
a serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one.
synonyms: supporter, upholder, adherent, backer, proponent, advocate, promoter, champion, exponent, standard-bearer, torch-bearer, prime mover, moving spirit, mainstay
"he's a strenuous protagonist of the new agricultural policy"
an advocate or champion of a particular cause or idea.
"the novel's main protagonist is an American intelligence officer"
the leading character or one of the major characters in a play, film, novel, etc.
synonyms: adversary, opponent, enemy, foe, nemesis, rival, competitor, contender
"the woman was forcing her antagonist's face into the mud"
a person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversary.
a person seen in terms of a particular aspect of character.
a part played by an actor.
synonyms: persona, person, role, part; dramatis personae
a person in a novel, play, or film.