Reading Long Term Retention Recall (What "cognitively active"…
Reading Long Term Retention Recall
What does it mean to "forget"?
new memories replace the ones that aren't being used that often
How are long-term memories (LTM) sotred?
Stage 3: Long-Term Memory
accessing LTMs (e.g., recall) stregthens the neural networks
memory decay disminishes ability to access a memory at a future time
distributed throughout the brain
Stage 2: Short-Term Memory
New LTM linked to existing LTMs via formation and strengthening of neural synapses (i.e., creation of eural network)
Not all STM become retrievable LTMs
deep (slow-wave) sleep is essential to create LTMs
stabilizes converion of STMto LTM
poor STM can be a limiting factor in learning
rehearsa increases length of time in STM and improves chances of transfer to LTM
chunking increases amount of information held in STM
hold 7 +/- 2 items for less than a minute
Stage 1: Sensory Memory
Process: Sensory Encoding
not all information makes it into short-term memory (STM)
attention is essential: ignored information vanishes
crucial first step in memory creation
a buffer that briefly ad accurately holds all perceived sesory stimuli - sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch - for less than a second
What is "surface learning"?
memorizing and understanding are not the same: memory helps create LTMs, but doesn't always have the same retrieval cues as understanding has
many of those study methods are based off of repetition and rehearsal
occurs with "cognitively passive" study methods
What are the take home messages?
Incorporate "retrieval practice" into your study plan
Get 7-8 hours of quality sleep on a regular basis
Deliberately link new information to existing information
Adopt a deep approach to learning
Pay Attention to the learning task at hand and avoid distractions
How are long-term memories retrieved?
when recalled, the LTM go beack to the "working" STM
to have a readily accessible LTM, the memory needs to have multiple, relevant cues
two processes are used to recall memories: recognition and recall
remembering and retrieving LTMs allows the neural pathway to be strengthened
What "cognitively active" study behaviors produce "deep learning"?
review information you want to memorize right before you go to bed
avoid multitasking while learning dense or difficult information
State- & Context-Dependent Memory
study in an environment similar to the environment you will be testing in
spread out you rstudy sessions over serveral days
create both a visual and verbal memory for the same information
retention and recall are better when you are actively participation in the creation of your own knowledge
link new information to other information you already know
self quiz often and recall infromation