Reading Long Term Retention Recall (What "cognitively active"…
Reading Long Term Retention Recall
What "cognitively active" study behaviors produce "deep learning"?
self quiz often and recall infromation
link new information to other information you already know
retention and recall are better when you are actively participation in the creation of your own knowledge
create both a visual and verbal memory for the same information
spread out you rstudy sessions over serveral days
State- & Context-Dependent Memory
study in an environment similar to the environment you will be testing in
avoid multitasking while learning dense or difficult information
review information you want to memorize right before you go to bed
How are long-term memories retrieved?
remembering and retrieving LTMs allows the neural pathway to be strengthened
two processes are used to recall memories: recognition and recall
to have a readily accessible LTM, the memory needs to have multiple, relevant cues
when recalled, the LTM go beack to the "working" STM
What are the take home messages?
Pay Attention to the learning task at hand and avoid distractions
Adopt a deep approach to learning
Deliberately link new information to existing information
Get 7-8 hours of quality sleep on a regular basis
Incorporate "retrieval practice" into your study plan
What is "surface learning"?
occurs with "cognitively passive" study methods
many of those study methods are based off of repetition and rehearsal
memorizing and understanding are not the same: memory helps create LTMs, but doesn't always have the same retrieval cues as understanding has
How are long-term memories (LTM) sotred?
Stage 1: Sensory Memory
a buffer that briefly ad accurately holds all perceived sesory stimuli - sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch - for less than a second
Process: Sensory Encoding
crucial first step in memory creation
attention is essential: ignored information vanishes
not all information makes it into short-term memory (STM)
Stage 2: Short-Term Memory
hold 7 +/- 2 items for less than a minute
chunking increases amount of information held in STM
rehearsa increases length of time in STM and improves chances of transfer to LTM
poor STM can be a limiting factor in learning
stabilizes converion of STMto LTM
deep (slow-wave) sleep is essential to create LTMs
Not all STM become retrievable LTMs
New LTM linked to existing LTMs via formation and strengthening of neural synapses (i.e., creation of eural network)
Stage 3: Long-Term Memory
distributed throughout the brain
memory decay disminishes ability to access a memory at a future time
accessing LTMs (e.g., recall) stregthens the neural networks
What does it mean to "forget"?
new memories replace the ones that aren't being used that often