Abusive Relationships- Physical Abuse (Mykala Pressley) (Warning…
Relationship education plays an important role in preventing partner abuse and promoting mental health (Murphy, 2011).
School-based education during the developmental stage has the potential to prevent harmful outcomes in adolescents’ future relationships (Murphy, 2011).
Some warning sign of abusive relationships are dominance-seeking partners, possessiveness, direct and indirect degradation, and overly-controlling partners (Murphy, 2011).
In Relation to Spousal Dynamic
Intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women is a prominent health issue across the world (Eshelman, 2012)
While men can also be victims of IPV, women are the victims that are more likely to suffer from physical injuries and mental health problems as a result of said abuse (Eshelman, 2012).
IPV stands for intimate partner violence which is many times used interchangeably with other terms such domestic violence and interpersonal violence (Eshelman, 2012)
In Connection to Mental Health
Elevated rates of depression and anxiety disorders, as well as an increased risk of PTSD, has also been connected to physical abuse (Schneider, 2007).
Many studies have shown that there are major connections between previous child maltreatment and impaired psycho-social functioning in adulthood (Schneider, 2007).
PTSD, suicidality, substance abuse, and depression occurs three to five times more frequently in survivors of domestic violence then in those who had never experienced it (Eshelman, 2012).
In Connection to Family History
A high prevalence in abusive family histories was found to be related to an increased likelihood of self-reported abusive behaviors (McCuish, 2017).
One-third of abused American children are likely to become abusing parents (Dixon, 2005).
Children who were witness to or victims of physical abuse prior to puberty have presented higher rates of abusive behaviors than those with physical abuse after puberty (Romero-Martínez, 2014).
In Relation to Parent/Child Dynamic
Recent studies have shown that there are more than an estimated 900,000 children that are abused or neglected every year (Schneider, 2007).
Child maltreatment can be broken down into several different categories such as physical abuse,
psychological or emotional maltreatment, neglect, and sexual abuse (Jouriles, 2008)
Physical abuse of a child can be defined as actions that could harm or endanger said child such as hitting with a hand, stick, strap, or other object as well as punching, kicking, shaking, throwing, burning, stabbing, or choking (Jouriles, 2008)
Children who are exposed to domestic violence are at a high risk for several long-term difficulties such as, but not limited to anxiety and depressive symptoms, aggressive and oppositional behaviors, and cognitive difficulties (Jouriles, 2008).
In Connection to Substance Abuse
Rates of physical abuse were significantly higher among victims that also reported a history of parental substance abuse (Walsh, 2003).
Studies have concluded that victimization of parental physical abuse encourages early involvement in substance abuse (Walters, 2018).
Previous childhood physical abuse has proven to be a strong predictor of young adults' current substance abuse (Lo, 2007).
Jouriles, E. N., PhD., McDonald, R., PhD., Slep, A. M. S., PhD., Heyman, R. E., PhD., & Garrido, E., PhD. (2008). Child abuse in the context of domestic violence: Prevalence, explanations, and practice implications. Violence and Victims, 23(2), 221-35. doi:
Schneider, R., Baumrind, N., & Kimerling, R. (2007). Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women. Violence and Victims, 22(5), 620-31. doi:
Eshelman, L., B.A., & Levendosky, A. A., PhD. (2012). Dating violence: Mental health consequences based on type of abuse. Violence and Victims, 27(2), 215-28. doi:
Walsh, C., MacMillan, H. L., & Jamieson, E. (2003). The relationship between parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: Findings from the ontario health supplement. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(12), 1409-1425. doi:
Lo, C. C., & Cheng, T. C. (2007). The impact of childhood maltreatment on young adults' substance abuse. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33(1), 139. Retrieved from
Walters, G. D., & Espelage, D. L. (2018). Exploring the victimization?early substance misuse relationship: In search of moderating and mediating effects. Child Abuse & Neglect, 81, 354. Retrieved from
Romero-Martínez, A., Figueiredo, B., & Moya-Albiol, L. (2014). Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: The role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(3), 510. doi:
McCuish, E. C., Cale, J., & Corrado, R. R. (2017). Abuse experiences of family members, child maltreatment, and the development of sex offending among incarcerated adolescent males. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(2), 127-149. doi:
Dixon, L., Browne, K., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2005). Risk factors of parents abused as children: A mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (part I). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(1), 47-57. doi:
Murphy, K. A. (2011). Girls at risk of chronic partner abuse: Assertive tendency, warning signs, risk sensitivity, and self-confidence. Journal of Relationships Research, 2(1), 33-42. doi: