Skeletal System/Joints/Skeletal Muscle (Skeletal System/Tissues (Major…
Skeletal System/Joints/Skeletal Muscle
Cranium, rib cage, vertebrae.
Calcium + Phosphate.
With help of muscle.
Blood cell formation
Red bone marrow
Framework for connection of soft tissues.
Tendons - muscle to muscle - dense regular connective tissue.
Ligaments - bone to bone - dense regular connective tissue.
Yellow bone marrow - fat
Major structural components
Cells + extracellular matrix - collagen --> strength + flexibility
Outer part of everybone
Composed of osteons packed together.
Periosteum (composed of dense irregular connective tissue)
Ends of long bones.
Inside all other bones.
Extra cellular matrix
Location of red bone marrow
Types of bones based on shape
Long bone (humerus)
Short bone (talus)
Flat bone (Sternum)
Irregular bone (vertebra)
Periosteum - 2 layers - outer layer is dense irregular C.T - inner layer is osteogenic bone (creation or formation).
Sharpey's fibers hold periosteum tightly to bone.
Red marrow (in spongy bone)
Gelatinous material as embryo/fetus
Contains blood-forming stem cells.
Fills all spaces inside the bone
Found about age 7 in vertebrae, coxal bones, sternum, ribs and skull.
Contains mesenchymal stem cells producing fat, cartilage, bone.
Types of bone cells
Osteogenic cells (stem cells)
Deep layers of periosteum and marrow.
Develop into osteoblasts
Bone surfaces and at sites of old, injured, unneeded bones.
Bone resorption (microvilli perform phagocytosis to break down organic portion of bone tissue. Inorganic (mineral) back to blood).
Created from leukocytes that form one big cell - multinucleate.
Microvilli: break down bone tissue and secretes enzymes.
Growing portions of bone, including periosteum and endosteum
Making extracellular matrix
Maintains bone tissue
Bundles of dense regular connective tissue.
Distal tibiofibular joint - carpals/tarsals.
Between teeth and alveoli.
Bones joined by very short interconnecting fibers.
Epiphyseal plate, between first rib and manubrium (hyaline cartilage).
Hyaline + fibrocartilage.
Major structural components
Presence of joint cavity surrounded by a joint capsule.
Joint capsule has 2 layers:
Outer layer: dense irregular connective tissue - attaches to periosteum.
Inner layer: synovial membrane - mostly areolar connective tissue - secretes synovial fluid.
Slippery and lubricating.
Nourishes the articular cartilage.
Bursa (e): sac filled with synovial fluid between:
Tendon + bone
Skin + bone
Ligament + bone
Muscle + bone
Type of bursa - tendon sheath
Six structural types
Nonaxial movement - gliding movement.
Eg: Intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, joints between vertebral articular surfaces.
Uniaxial movement - flexion and extension.
Eg: Elbow joints, interphalangeal joints.
Uniaxial movement - Rotation
Eg: Proximal radioulnar joints, atlantoaxial joint
Biaxial movement - flexion and extension; adduction and abduction.
Eg: Metacarpophalangeal joints, wrists joints.
Biaxial movement - adduction and abduction; flexion and extension.
Eg: Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs
Multiaxial movement - flexion and extension; adduction and abduction; rotation.
Eg: Shoulder joints and hip joints.
Open/close body passageways - sphincter muscle.
Maintain posture + Stabilize joints.
Produce movement: moves bones, blood, contents of hollow organs.
Excitability - ability to respond to a stimulus and producing an electrical signal.
Extensibility - ability to stretch (within limits)
Contractility: generate tension or force when pulling on an attachment point.
Elasticity - ability to return to original shape after contraction/extension.
Connective tissue layers
Perimysium: covers each fascile - dense irregular C.T; covers blood vessel within.
Epimysium - dense irregular C.T - binds fascicles together.
Composed of mostly reticular fibers - create space allows space for very small blood vessel to run next to muscle fibers.
Deep fascia - binds whole muscles together - dense irregular C.T
Transverse (T) tubules
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - storage of calcium.
Storage place of calcium
Synaptic cleft (gap)
End plate region
Postsynaptic membrane (neurotransmitter's receptors)