Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (Germanic Kingdoms Merge (Leadership …
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Germans Adopt Christianity
What caused Christianity to spread through Europe?
the church and king started working together to spread faith and missionaries came about
Valus & Beliefs
Politics played a big role in the movement of Christianity
The Church, had con- verted many Germanic peoples, with the help of Frankish rulers.
New converts had settled in Rome’s former lands
300s & 400s - they worked among the Germanic and Celtic groups that bordered the Roman Empire
Southern Europe,fear of coastal attacks by Muslims also spurred many people to become Christians in the 600s.
Monasteries - Church built religious communities
Monks (christian men) gave their private possessions & devoted their lives to serving god.
Nuns - women who followed this way of life. They lived in convents.
Monks & nuns devoted their lives to prayer & god.
520, Benedict (Italian monk) starting writing a book describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries.
Scholastica (Benedict's sister) leaded a convent & adapted the same rules for women.
guidelines became a model for many other religious communities in Western Europe.
Monasteries - became Europe's best educated communities.
opened schools, maintained libraries, & copied books.
731, Venerable Bede (English Monk) wrote a history of England. Still is considered the best historical work of the early Middle Ages.
600s & 700s, monks made beautiful copies of religious writings, decorated it with ornate letters & brilliant pictures.
illuminated manuscripts preserved at least part of Rome's intellectual heritage.
590- Gregory I (Gregory the Great) became pope. Also become a secular.
Gregory broadened authority of the papacy, or pope's office. Beyond its spiritual role.
Raised armies, repair roads, & help the poor. Negotiated peace treaties with invaders, such as Lombards.
Secular - worldly, power involved in politics.
secular rulers expanded their political kingdoms
Pope's palace was the center of Roman government.
Gregory strengthened the vision of Christendom
How was Pope Gregory I like a Roman Emperor?
Everything fell under his arm, such like the region from Italy to England & from Spain to Germany. He was had power in politics. He also strengthened the vision of Christendom.
Germanic Kingdoms Merge
How did Germanic and Roman soldiers differ?
Roman soldiers were loyal to an emperor and Germanic soldiers were loyal to a local lord
Why did the Church support Clovis's against other Germanic people?
as he conquered different regions, he spread Christianity
400 & 600 - small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces.
Kingdoms borders changed constantly with the fortunes of war.
Church provided order and security.
Along with boundaries government cocepts changed as well.
Loyalty to government and law unified Roman society.
ties and personal loyalties.
The Germans lived in small communities that were governed by traditions and unwritten rules.
Every Germanic chief led a band of warriors
It was considered a disgrace to outlive their king.
During times of peace the king gave them shelter, food, and treasures.
The warriors would not obey a king or emporer they did not konw.
Clovis rules the Franks
Germanic people (franks) - help power
Clovis - leader
brings Christianity to the region
Clothilde - wife
wanted him to convert to her faith, Christianity.
496 - led his warriors against another Germanic army
appealed to the Christian God
“For I have called on my gods,” he prayed, “but I find they are far from my aid. . . . Now I call on Thee. I long to believe in Thee. Only, please deliver me from my enemies.”
after - Clovis & 3,000 of his warriors asked a bishop to baptize them.
511 - Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom
Clovis’s Frankish kingdom and the Church - marked the start of a new partnership between two forces (powerful)
An Empire Evolves
How did Pepin The Short expand the authority he had inherited?
-he already had the power of the title major domo, and he is crowned king by the pope
-he now has support of the church because the church is the one that declared him king
Why might someone be content with the title major domo rather than seeking to be crowned king?
major domo is the most powerful person in the kingdom. power is already associated with the name major domo.
small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe.
Franks controlled largest & strongest, of Europe’s kingdoms, the area was formerly the Roman province of Gaul
Their first Christian king, Clovis died (511), he extended Frankish rule over most of what is France today.
Mayor of the palace (major domo) - became a powerful person in Frankish kingdom.
was in charge of the royal household & estates
led armies & made policy
Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer)- mayor of the palace in 719
held more power than the king.
extended, Franks’ reign to the north, south, & east
defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours (in 732)
was highly significant for Christian Europeans.
defeating, made him a Christian hero
passed on his power to his son at his death. Pepin the short.
Wanted to be king. He cooperated with the pope
the pope anointed Pepin “king by the grace of God.”
agreed to fight the Lombards (behalf of the church)
Lombards- had invaded central Italy & threatened Rome
Began the Carolingian Dynasty (family that will rule the Franks. 751-987)
Invasions of Western Europe
Why did the move to rural areas contribute to a decline in literacy?
The more people were spread out, the harder it was to obtain school and priest and church leaders stayed literate
Why were cities particularly hard to hit when the Roman Empire declined?
Cities were no longer the center of trade, governments failed, and many city dwellers moved to the country
Repeated invasions and constant warfare caused a series of changes that altered the economy, government, and culture
Disruption of Trade- The breakdown of trade destroyed Europe’s cities as economic centers
Downfall of Cities- cities were abandoned as centers of administration
Population Shifts- nobles retreated to the rural areas. cities were left without strong leadership. city dwellers also fled to the countryside, where they grew their own food. population of western Europe became mostly rural
Germanic invaders who stormed Rome could not read or write
Romans, level of learning sank sharply as more and more families left for rural areas.
Greek, long important in Roman culture, was almost lost
Few people except priests and other church officials were literate
Few people could read Greek works of literature, sci- ence, and philosophy
Germanic tribes, had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends. Had no written language.
German-speaking peoples mixed with the Roman population, Latin changed, it was still an official language, it was no longer understood
Different dialects developed as new words and phrases became part of everyday speech
various languages mirrored the continued breakup of a once-unified empire
800s - French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages had evolved from Latin
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
In the painting, what do the sword and cross symbolize?
the cross symbolises religion and the death of Jesus christ, the sword symbolises the land that was conquered with the army that built his empire
How did Charlemagne challenge traditional Germanic Government?
built a greater empire leading his armies against enemies that surrounded his kingdom. he spread Christianity through each conquest he joined Gernimic power with the church used to be enemies
Pepin the Short died in 768
Frankish kingdom - was greatly strengthened & left two his two sons.
Carloman (death in 771)
Charles (Charlemagne) (Charles the Great) ruled the kingdom
Einhard (secretary) described Charlemagne’s achievements;
"Charlemagne was the most potent prince with the greatest skill and success in different countries during the forty-seven years of his reign. Great and powerful as was the realm of Franks, Karl [Charlemagne] received from his father Pippin, he nevertheless so splendidly enlarged it . . . that he almost doubled it."
[he led his armies against enemies surrounding his kingdom and he conquered new lands spreading Christianity
he reunited western
Europe and became the most powerful king in western Europe
he strenthed royal power by limiting the power of the nobles and sending out royal agents they made sure that the powerful counts (land owners) governed their counties
charlemagne visited each one regularly he also watched close on the management of his estates the source of his wealth and power. one of his greatest achievements was his involvement in encouragement on learning.
powerful land owners called courts fai governed there countries
empire greater than any known since ancient Rome
led his armies against enemies that surrounded his kingdom
conquered new lands to both the south & the east
these conquests, spread Christianity
800- Charlemagne’s empire was larger than the Byzantine Empire
traveled to Rome to crush an unruly mob that had attacked the pope
Pope Leo III crowned him emperor