Charlamange Unites Germanic Kingdoms (Authority (Charles Martel Emerges…
Charlamange Unites Germanic Kingdoms
4. An Empire Evolves
The Franks controlled the largest and strongest of Europe’s kingdoms, the area that was formerly the Roman province of Gaul. When the Franks’ first Christian king, Clovis, died in 511, he had extended Frankish rule over most of what is now France.
About the Death of Clovis
After The Roman empire dissolved small kingdoms sprang up all over Europes. For example, England splintered into seven tiny kingdoms. Some of them were no larger then the state of Connecticut
How were these small kingdoms a good and bad thing?
Why might someone be content with the title major domo rather than seeking to be crowned king?:
Someone might be content with being crowned major domo because there would be more power.
Charles Martel Emerges
By 700, an official known as the major domo, or mayor of the palace, had become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom
The mayor of the palace in 719, Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer), held more power than the king. Charles Martel extended the Franks’ reign to the north, south, and east. He also defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732.
Why was he called Charles the Hammer?
Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732. This battle was highly significant for Christian Europeans. If the Muslims had won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire. Charles Martel’s victory at Tours made him a Christian hero.
Battle of Tours
At his death, Charles Martel passed on his power to his son, Pepin the Short. Pepin wanted to be king. He shrewdly cooperated with the pope. On behalf of the Church, Pepin agreed to fight the Lombards, who had invaded central Italy and threatened Rome.
How was Pepin different from his father?
Pepin The Short
By 700, an official known as the major domo, or mayor of the palace, had become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom. Officially, he had charge of the royal household and estates.
The Concept of Government Changes
Loyalty to public government and written law had unified Roman society.
Family ties and personal loyalty, rather than citizenship in a public state, held Germanic society together
Germanic peoples lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions, unlike Romans
How did Germanic and Roman Soldiers differ?
- Roman soldiers were loyal to an Emperor, while the Germanic were loyal to local lords
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
Between 400 and 600, Germanic kingdoms begun to replace Roman Provinces
Kingdom boarders constantly shifted during war times
During times of political chaos, the Church kept the order and security
How did the shifting of borders affect the people?
- It made people become more spread out and made it harder to obtain an education, leading to most people being illiterate
More about Shifting Borders
What Roman Provinces were replaced?
Clovis Rules the Franks
Lead by Clovis, Held power in Gual (Current day France and Switzerland)
Brought Christianity to the region
Lead warriors against Germanic army, but after almost losing appealed to the Christian God, and after praying, the Franks won the battle
Church of Rome welcomed Colvis's conversion and supported his campaign.
Why did the Church support Clovis’s campaigns against other Germanic people?
- They supported him because as he conquered, he was spreading Christianity
Value and Beliefs
Was the victory of the battle due to religion or luck? Why do you believe that?
More about Gaul
3. Germans Adopt Christianity
600: Frankish Rulers help with the spread of Christianity to Germanic people.
Many new converts settled in Rome.
:latin_cross: Missionaries spread Christianity and risked their lives to bring new beliefs to other lands. :latin_cross:
300's and 400's: Religious travelers worked among Celtic and Germanic groups.
600's: Muslims also converted to Christianity
Monasteries, Convents and Manuscripts
Churches began to build monasteries. A
is a religous community.
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What caused Christianity to spread through Europe and why was it important?
There are many reasons to why Christianity was spread quickly. European's idolized a loving God and the ways of Christianity. The religion had a lot of history and substance as well. The spread of Christianity was important because it dictated the lifestyles of many people in this time period. It also developed an age of divine education.
Papel Power Expands Under Gregory I
How was Pope Gregory I like a Roman Emperor?:
Gregory the Great was born in Rome and was raised in a wealthy family there. This caused the alikeness in the Roman Emperors and Pope Gregory. He was strict in the religious community but still was very educated like Roman emperors.
Gregory I becomes Pope. He was also called Gregory the Great.
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How does this style of Christianity differ from today?
Disruption of trade
Their businesses collasped
The breakdown of trade destroyed Europe's cities as economic centers
Merchants faced invasions from both lands and sea
Money became scarce
As Roman Center of trade and government collapsed , nobles retreated to rural areas
Roman cities left without strong leadership
Other city dwellers also fled to the countryside , where they grew their own food.
The population of western Europe became mostly rural
Why did the move to rural areas contribute to decline in literacy?
There was not as much access in rural areas. There was also a long distance between them and ways to become literate.
How did this affect the people mentally and physically?
What events in history can relate to this?
5. Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
1. Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule
Charlemagne built an empire greater than any empire known since Ancient Rome
Led his armies to fight against those Muslims in Spain and Tribes from other Germanic kingdoms
Conquered lands to the south and east
Spread Christianity while conquering
Reunited Western Europe
In what other ways did Charlemagne improve his empire?
In the painting, what do the sword and cross symbolize?
The sword and cross symbolize that he is both a brave warrior yet still committed to his religion.
Battles Charlemagne Led
800: Charlemagne travels to Rome to crush a mob that attacked the pope
He was crowned by Pope Leo III as emperor from gratitude
The pope had the right to confer the title of "Roman Emperor" to a European king
This united and joined the Church, Roman empire, and Germanic power.
How did Charlemagne challenge traditional Germanic Government?
Charlemagne challenged the traditional Germanic government by being crowned as emperor even though he was European.
Saint Leo III
What other empires were like Charlemagne's?
3. Charlemagne's Heirs
Charlemagne dies. His only son, Louis the Pious was crowned as emperor a year before.
Louis the Pious was an ineffective ruler who had 3 sons
Charles the Bald
More about Charles the Bald
All 3 of his sons fought for control of the Empire
All 3 brothers signed the Treaty of Verdum which divided the empire into 3 kingdoms
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More about Lothar
Louis the German
Louis the German
Louis the Pious' LIfe
2. Charlemagne Leads a Revival
Strengthened his royal power by limiting the power and authority of nobles
How would this affect the nobles lifestyles?
Would send out royal agents to counts to make sure that their counties were ruled fairly
counts: (powerful land owners)
More about Counts
Reguarly visited every part of his kingdom
Kept a close eye on the management of the source of Carolingian wealth and power
Encouraged learning strongly
Charlemagne was fluent in German, Italian, Spanish, and English due to surrounding himself with scholars
Opened a palace school and ordered monasteries to open schools for training of future monks and priests
How would this effect Christianity?
How did Charlemagne becoming educated affect his ruling?
Downfall of cities
With the fall of the Roman Empire , cities were abandoned as center of administration
The Declined of learning
The Germanic invaders who stormed Rome could not read or write
Where was the invasion of Western Europe?
More about the Invaders
Why were cities particulary had hut when the Roman Empire declined?
Cities were no longer the center of trade, governments failed, and many city dwellers moved to the country