Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms (Invasions of Western Europe (Loss…
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
Setting the Stage
Between 400 and 600, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces.
The Church survived the fall of the Roman Empire.
During this political chaos, the Church provided order and security.
The borders changed constantly with the fortunes of war.
The Concept of Government Changes
The entire concept of government changed.
Loyalty to public government and the written law had unified the Roman society.
Family ties and personal loyalty, rather than citizenship in a public state, held Germanic society together.
Unlike Romans, Germanic peoples lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions.
Why did the Church support Clovis’s campaigns against other Germanic people?
As he conquered different regions, he spread his Christianity. Clovis also would be baptized and the church would get more conversions and followers when he ruled
The Church in Rome welcomed Clovis's conversion and supported his military campaigns against other Germanic peoples.
How did Germanic and Roman Soldiers differ?
Roman soldiers were loyal to an emperor.
Germanic soldiers were loyal to a local lord.
In the Roman province a Germanic people called the Franks held power.
Their leader was Clovis
He would bring Christianity to the region.
According to legend, his wife, Clothilde, had urged him to convert to her faith, Christianity.
In 496, Clovis led his warriors against another Germanic army.
Fearing defeat, he appealed to the Christian God.
The tide of the battle shifted and the Franks won.
Afterward, Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors asked bishop to baptize them.
Germans Adopt Christianity
What caused Christianity to spread through Europe and why was it important?
Politics played a huge role in spreading christianity.
By 600, Frankish rulers had converted many people to Christianity.
Religious travelers risked their lives to spread their religious culture.
Fear of coastal attacks by Muslims, spurred many people to become Christians.
How was Pope Gregory I like a Roman Emperor?
In 590, Gregory I, became pope.
As the head of the church, he broadened the authority of the papacy, or the pope's office. Past it's spiritual role.
The papacy got very involved with power in politics.
The pope's palace was the center of the Roman government.
The pope started using church revenue to benefit the Roman government. He bought such things as: raising the army, repair roads, help the poor, and even settle peace treaties.
Gregory himself said that the downfall of his land was his own responsibility.
Gregory I biography
Monastery: a religious community of men (called monks) who have given up their possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and worship.
Men who worked there were called: Monks Women who worked there were called: Nuns
Around 520, an Italian monk named Benedict, began writing strict rules for monasteries.
Benedict's sister, Scholastica, adapted the same strict rules for women.
These guidelines became a model for many other religious communities in Western Europe.
Monasteries became Europe's most educated communities.
Monks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books.
The monks made beautiful copies of reilgious writings, and some of them are known to be the best historical writings of the 600-700's
Benedict and Scholastica story
Monks and Nuns dedicated their life to prayer, and good work.
Example of Monastery
An Empire Evolves
Small kingdoms sprang up over Europe, after Roman Empire dissolved.
England divided into 7 tiny kingdoms
Franks controlled largest and strongest of Europe’s kingdoms.
Formerly the Roman province of Gaul.
When the Franks' first Christian king, Clovis, died in 511, his rile had extended Frankish rile over what is mostly France.
Charles Martel Emerges
Mayor of the palace, had become the most powerful person int he Frankish kingdom.
He had charge of the royal household and estates
He led armies and made policy
In effect he ruled the kingdom
Charles Martel held more power than the king.
Charles Martels extended the franks reign to the North, south, and east.
This battle was highly significant for christian Europeans
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Invasions of Western Europe
Why were cities particularly hard hit when the Roman Empire declined?
Cities were abandoned because since they were controlled by the Roman Empire, they had them to depend on.
Because they depended on the Empire to keep them stabilized
Why did the move to rural areas contribute to decline in literacy?
Because since they knew no literacy or were not literate, they moved to the rural to grow crops and make money for themselves.
Due to many invasions and constant warfare many things changed the economy, culture, and government
Downfall of Cities
Cities were abandoned
Why did the Empire fall so hard?
Cities left without leadership
City dwellers fled their cities and grew own food in rural places
Since the centers of trade and government collapsed, nobles were forced to retreat to the rural areas (which was most of the western Europe population)
Disruption of Trade
Money became scarce
The ruined trade destroyed Europe's cities economics
Land and sea invasions were common for merchants
The Decline of Learning
The knowledge of Greek was important in Rome but was soon lost
Few people could read Greek work
The Germanic tribes had rich oral traditions but they had no written language.
The people who invaded Rome (which were Germanic) were not literate.
Only people that were literate were priests and other church officials, with the exceptions of a few people
Loyalty: they probably didn't want education because of the fact they were always ordered to attack places and they weren't gonna be worried about school or learning things.
Loss of a Common Language
Latin Changed because German and Roman population was mixing
By 800s French, Spanish, and other based languages evolved in Latin.
It was still the main language, but no one understood it
With all these new languages coming up, it mirrored a break up of a once-unified empire.
Setting the Stage
The decline of the Roman Empire took place in the Middle Ages (Medieval Period)
Spanned from years 500 to 1500
During these centuries a new society emerged, had roots in:
the beleifs of the Roman Cathloic Church
the heritage of Rome
the customs of Germanic tribes
During the 5th Century, in the Roman Empire, Germanic invaders overran the western half
Charlemange Becomes Emperor
In 768 Pepin the Short died, he left a Frankish kingdom to his two sons, Carloman and Charles.
Charles the Great was ruled as ruler of the kingdom after his brothers death in 771
Charlemange Extends Frankish Rule
In the painting, what did the sword and cross symbolize?
It represents the loyalty to defend and the cross shows his religious beliefs which was Christianity
Why did Charlemagne just hand the crown down, why didn't he want to be smart and have an election to see if anyone else would be an efficient leader?
Conflict: All brothers were fighting to get to see who will rule the whole kingdom when there was plenty enough land for all 3 brothers
One kingdoms ruler lost power and just broke down. Due to the lack of strong leaders, it led to a new systems of governing and landholding for all-feudalism.
Finally in 843, all 3 brothers signed a treaty of peace called the "Treaty of Verdun", dividing the empire into 3 kingdoms.
in 813 which was a year before Charlemagne died, he crowned his last surviving son
He 3 of his own sons and one fought on another for control of the Empire.
Louis (his son) was a devoutly religous man but a crappy ruler.
Charlemagne Leads a Revival
Loyalty: Made sure all parts of his kingdoms were running well and contributing
He opened a palace school, and opened a school to train future monks and priests
He surrounded himself with German, Italian, English and Spanish scholars which was one of his greatest accomplishments to learn these.
He kept close eye on the big estates and the real wealth and power of the kingdom
Charlemagne has little help with ruling, he strengthened his power by limiting the authority of the nobles.
He always made sure to make visits to each part of his kingdom
Royal agents made sure that landowners or "counts" were governing their counties justly.
The coronation was a spark of word, a pope claimed the politcal right to confer the title "Roman Empire:
by 800, Charlemagane travled to Rome to attack a group that had attacked the Pope, in favor of that the Pope crowned him emperor
Was able to reunite Europe for the first time since the Romans
Built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome
Led his army against his enemies in the summer that were around his kingdom
Devotion: Every summer he would set an attack for a certain Empire to most likely gain his power.
Conquered new lands to South to East, through these conquests he was able to spread Christianity
How did Charlemagne challenge traditional Germanic Government?
Since he limited his authority to the nobles, it grew his power and authority in government