Implications of recovery on training (Active recovery (Using an active…
Implications of recovery on training
Understanding of EPOC for an elite athlete
Knowledge and understanding of EPOC and the recovery processes are essential for both athletes and coaches to
maintain training efficiency and ensure repeated peak performances.
An elite athlete's recovery is
following general principles based on the use of a
warm up, active recovery, cooling aids, intensity planning, work:relief ratios and the correct nutrition.
By performing a warm up,
respiratory, heart and metabolic rates increase,
accelerating the use of the aerobic system, which minimises the time spent using the anaerobic energy system for energy production and lactic acid accumulation.
It reduces the oxygen deficit
, limiting the amount of oxygen required to 'pay it back' during EPOC.
Using an active recovery
maintains respiratory and heart
flushing the muscle and capillary beds
speeds up the removal of lactic acid and reduces the length of the slow lactacid component of EPOC
, essential if there are repeated bouts of exercise on the same day.
, active recovery
40-60% of VO2 max
is advisable for athletes who accumulate lactic acid during their performance; however, it may have
little benefit for aerobic athletes who achieve a steady-state oxygen consumption.
may help to
reduce the temperature and metabolic rate
, diminishing the energy cost of EPOC.
Aids such as ice baths, can be used post event to lower the muscle and blood temperature to resting levels, reducing the metabolic rate and demand on the slow component of EPOC.
Cooling aids can also be used after an event to speed up the lactic acid removal, reduce muscle damage and decrease delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
Intensity of training
The intensity of training should be
monitored using heart rate
to ensure training
intensity is specific to the energy system and muscle fibre type
, mirrors the demands of the activity, overloading to progressively create appropriate adaption.
High intensity training will increase muscle mass, ATP and PC storage capacity, boosting the efficiency of the fast component of recovery.
High-intensity training will increase the tolerance to lactic acid, increase buffering capacity and delay OBLA, reducing the demand in the slow lactacid component of EPOC.
Low-moderate intensity training will increase aerobic capacity, and respiratory and cardiovascular efficiency. An earlier move to aerobic energy production minimises lactic acid build-up, delaying OBLA, and maximises oxygen delivery post exercise during EPOC.
Based on predominant energy system required in
physical activity, training intensity and the correct work:relief ratio
For speed and explosive strength-based performers predominantly using the ATP-PC system, a work:relief ratio of 1:3+ should give sufficient time for ATP and PC stores to resyntehesise within a session.
For lactate tolerance and high-intensity muscular endurance performers predominantly using the glycolytic system, a work:relief ratio of 1:2 should give sufficient recovery to continue training but encourage lactic acid accumulation to increase tolerance and buffering capacity.
For aerobic capacity or endurance performers predominantly using the aerobic system, a work:relief ratio of 1:1 or 1:0.5 will promote adaptation, and delay OBLA and muscular fatigue.
Strategies and Tactics
A coach should use timeouts and subs to allow
30s relief intervals for 50% ATP and PC replenishment.
Set plays and marking or running strategies can lower the intensity, delaying OBLA and fatigue.
The correct pre-, during and post-event nutrition can help the performer to
maximise fuel stores, delay fatigue, reduce lactic acid accumulation and speed up recovery.
To maximise PC stores, a performer may load creatine, phosphagen and protein, increasing the efficiency of the ATP-PC system and the fast stage of recovery.
To maximise glucose and glycogen, a performer may carbohydrate load, and use pre-event, during event and post-event meals and snacks, maximising the efficiency of the glycolytic and aerobic systems and the slow stage of recovery.
To tolerate the effects of lactic acid, a performer may use bicarbonate to enhance the buffering process. Those training close to the lactate threshold may use nitrates to reduce oxygen cost of exercise and speed up recovery times with enhanced oxygenated blood flow.