Culture / Gender (Contrasts Between Individualistic and Collectivistic…
Culture / Gender
Contrasts Between Individualistic and Collectivistic Values
Individual Choice and Personal Responsibility
All cultures seem to acknowledge that how people behave affects what will happen to them, whether in this life or a presumed afterlife.
Different views of the responsibility for those outcomes.
Individualism highly values the freedom to choose for oneself.
Individualistic culture may be allowed or even encouraged to make choices based on hat is best individually, while people in collectivistic culture are more likely to be expected to give priority to what is best for the group.
Collectivistic cultures, the ideals of individual choice and free will are less likely to be highly valued, and less emphasis may be placed on personal responsibility for outcomes.
In some collectivistic culture, great importance is placed on maintaining the family reputation by not shaming it.
This perceptive can delay or prevent getting help if conditions such as mental illness or disabilities are viewed as sources of shame.
Family members in a collectivistic culture may desire or feel obligated to care for relatives in need, so accepting help from others may be viewed as evading family responsibilities
In American mainstream culture families also take care of their own, however, often people feel they should take care of their own needs and only turn to their families as a "last resort"
Culture influences how decisions are made within a family.
In traditional collectivistic cultures, there is likely to be social hierarchy based on gender, birth order, and/or age.
Elders may have final say about how far their children go in school, who they marry, or where they work.
Decisions by authority figures in collectivistic cultures are likely to be obeyed within less questioning than is typically in individualistic culture.
In American individualism, the ideal is for all people to be able to freely make their own decisions.
The opinions of family elder may be respected, but as youth enters adulthood, they expect and are expected to make decisions about their own lives.
Concepts and Progress
A widely shared value in American mainstream individualism is that people should continually be improving themselves and advancing in their educations, careers, and other endeavorsz
Traditional collectivistic cultures, however, may not place a sting value on this kind or progress.
The basic individualistic and collectivistic views of people as either independent or independent leads to contrasting sets of values.
Orientation to Self or Group
The individualistic view of people as independent units leads to emphasis on a range of self-oriented values and skills that support independent living
The collectivistic view of people as independent leads to emphasis of group-oriented values and skills that contribute to effectively filling roles within the family or other group.
Instead of living independently or going away to college, the you get adult may be expected to remain at home and fulfill roles within the family.
Society hierarchy strongly influenced how knowledge is obtained and transmitted.
People are high social status may be seen as holding important cultural and technological knowledge.
May be considered disrespectful for children to express their opinions to or ask many questions of their elders.
May be expected to absorb and than reflect back the knowledge provided to them by their elders, who determine when youngsters are ready to learn.
More likely that children are encouraged to form and express options and to seek knowledge t a pace they self-determine.
Knowledge should be freely available to anyone go wants it
Expression of Identity
American mainstream culture promotes self-expression.
Cars, clothes, cosmetics, and most other consumers items are often marketed in terms of how they help people to express their inner selves.
In collectivistic cultures, by contrast, people are more likely to adopt, an appearance appropriate for their social status, with less concern for expressing what makes them unique as individuals.
Misunderstandings are therefore likely when people from different cultures interact.
Common tendencies in American individualism include directly raising topics or issues, freely expressing personal opinions, and asking personal questions, even of strangers.
All of these tendencies are generally less prominent in collectivistic cultures.
In many collectivistic cultures it is especially likely that younger or socially lower people are expected to behave in a respectful and obedient way when interacting with older or people of higher social rank.
Norms vary a great deal across culture for the distance at which people feel comfortable talking to each other or for appropriate touching.
Interaction norms depend on people's social status.
Shame and Guilt
People are likely to feel shame or guilt if they do poorly in competition or behave in ways that other criticize.
Fear of falling or losing may keep people from tackling a challenge or entering a completion.
People with a collectivistic orientation are more likely to identify strongly with their family or some other group, they tend to be more likely to feel shame of guilt if their behavior is judged to bring disgrace in the group.
As social emotions, shame and guilt naturally vary across cultures.
Individualistic orientation tend to view themselves as being more in control of their own lives, they may be more likely to blame themselves and feel shame or guilt if they do not meet expectations.
In American individualism, people can show that they have valued characteristics— such as mastery of certain skills of being able to perform under pressure—by competing with and doing better than others.
Collectivistic cultures are more likely to emphasize cooperation amount group members as the basis for success in competition with other groups, whether at level of the family, business, or nation.
Gender and Sexual Orientation
Gender identity is how, in your head, you think about yourself. It's the chemistry that composes you and how you interpret what that means.
Gender expression is how you demonstrate your gender through the ways you act, dress, behave, and interact.
Biological sex refers
Sexual orientation is who you are physically, spiritually, and emotionally attracted to, based on their sex / gender in relation to your own.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory
A framework for cross-culture communication.
The effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior.
The degree of being feminine--valuing fluid gender roles, quality of life, services, relationships, and the degree of being masculine--emphasing distrincitive gender roles, ambition, materialism, and independence.
The extent to which people accept an unequal distribution of power.
Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation
Reflects a cultural-group orientation toward virtue or truth. The long-term orientation emphasizes virtue, whereas the short-term orientation emphasizes truth.
The extent to which uncertainty, ambiguity, and deviant ideas and behaviors are avoided.
Individualism on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism, is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups and seen as interdependent.
There are elements of both individualism and collectivism in any culture.
A cultural oriented to individualism might highly value being able to work independently.
The difference is in the relative importance that each culture places on these contrasting values.
Most members of a collectivistic culture will hold values at the collectivistic end of the continuum, although each will be at a different spot on the continuum, and some will even be at the indivualistic end.
Where they are on the continuum of values depends on such factors as how closely they identity with traditional culture, their level of education, and the ethnic mix of their community.
A culture oriented to collectivism might highly value being able to work as part of a group.
Falls into two camps
Biological Construction of Race
"Pure" races existed and could be distinguished by such physical features as eye color and shape, skin color, and hair
Not a person's DNA that places them into a particular racial grouping, but all of the other factors that create social relations---politics, geography, or migration.
Working class, middle-class, upper-class,
"your understanding of the world and where you fit in; it's composed of ideas, behaviors, attitude, values, and language; class is how you think, feel, act, look, dress, talk, move, walk"
The power of dominant groups
One, privilege is a relative concept that varies according to context. In some situations we may be more privileged than others, and in order to access some of that privilege one may decide to highlight or conceal parts of their identity.
EX: Unless a person tells you, you have no way of knowing his/her sexual orientation. Thus, a gay man might decide to "pass" as straight at a family reunion to avoid conflict from a heterosexist family. The fact that he can choose to pass and a black man cannot make the choice to pass as white is another example of privilege.
Two, we may have aspects of our identities that are simultaneously advantaged and disadvantaged.
The gay, white, working-class, male above is advantaged by the fact that he has light skin and s male, and is disadvantaged by the fact that he is gay and working-class.
We can be privileged and not feel privileged.
Culture and Communication is a reciprocal process: culture affects communication and communication affects culture.
Both work together to shape how we identify as belonging to one culture or another, how we feel about belonging to a particular culture groups, how we communicate with others cultural groups, and how that group is regarded in the larger social system.
People from different countries or of different racial and ethnicity background
Culture refers to belief systems, values, and behaviors that support a particular ideology or social arrangement.
A concept that relates to my story is biological construction of race. I have a cousin who’s skin isn’t that same color as mine, so people don’t believe he is my cousin. They think I’m lying because we don’t look alike and because he is a light skin boy.