Other Versions of the Design Argument (Arguments against evolution ( …
Other Versions of the Design Argument
The Asethetic Principle :rose:
Key terms :lipstick:
: the way something appears
What is the argument about?
Shows evidence of a divine creator combined with probability, providence, purpose, cosmology and so on to make it more probable.
: We are
attracted to beauty
. Beauty of objects take them beyond a function. Because there is excessive amounts of beauty in nature, it demonstrates the handcraft of a powerful being -God.
Tennant is basically saying that because there is so much amazing beauty in the world, there must have been an amazing, intelligent designer.
This argument was put forward by F.R. Tennant who said that
"Nature... is saturated with beauty"
It is part of a
Strengths and Weaknesses :muscle: :older_woman::skin-tone-3:
:muscle:: There is evidence of beauty in the world.
:older_woman::skin-tone-2:: There is so much chaos in the world. Also, not everybody excepts there is 'excessive' beauty in the world. This outlook can depend on your mental state (e.g. depression)
Anthropic Reasoning :earth_africa: :family:
What is it about? :silhouettes:
' is a Greek word meaning human. So anthropic reasoning argues from a human perspective.
It is based on how the world was created with
in mind (such as how we have the ozone layer, ecosystems, planetary movement that support our survival), and it is based on evidence through sense experience.
The Argument :speech_balloon:
Human life depends on many factors to happen in this universe, such as planetary position and fundamental laws of physics, there is human life, and these conditions are very unlikely to happen by themselves. This means that there must be a designer or intelligent creator who could make sense of our improbable universe, which is God.
The emergence of human life in our universe depends on many factors. 2.Human life has emerged in our universe 3. a life friendly universe with these circumstances is highly improbable 4. A designer or intelligent creator would make sense of our improbable universe. 5. God exists.
Strengths and Weaknesses :muscle: :older_man::skin-tone-2:
:muscle:: The argument is logical and based on evidence.
:older_man::skin-tone-2:: conclusion is an assumption based on probability.
There are 2 types of anthropic principles
Weak anthropic principle
: states that the circumstances in our universe makes it
that there is human life. It fits in with
since God has enabled human life to happen (perhaps through evolution) but has not necessarily made it.
F.R. Tennant said "The World is compatible with a single throw of the dice and common sense is not stupid in suspecting the dice has been loaded.
Strong anthropic principle
: states that the circumstances in our universe makes it
that there is human life. This shows that God has definitely
human life when he originally created the universe.
Dyson said that "
It almost seems as if the Universe in some sense have known we were coming.
Swinburne's modern design argument
What dis Swinburne believe?
Swinburne argues for "temporary order" and he believes that there is regularity in the universe.
This argument states that since the universe is so complex, it would be incoherent to believe that God doesn't exist. It is also logical to believe that the universe needs an explanation.
: :alarm_clock::This is concerned with the way the world is ordered and it has evidence of regularity (Normal Laws).
: :monkey:states that there is no design and nothing has a purpose, due to evolution.
The Argument :loudspeaker:
The universe is physical and requires an explanation outside the universe, and it logically makes sense to put forward God.
Swinburn argues for '"temporary order". This shows the way the world is ordered, and how the world has evidence of regularity, for example, Natural Laws, movement of planets, seasons, tides and gravity.
The "Special Order" that Paley's design argument put forward about order and regularity no longer applies because of the theory of evolution.
Swinburne's 4 criteria for a good explanation
If you can predict something the explanation must be valid.
It must be simple.
A non physical explanation behind a physical world is simpler and more logical than the idea of the universe creating itself.
It must be better than another theory already put forward.
Swinburne doesn't say that because there is a universe, there must be God, but he says that there is a possibility of God. Since supports the idea that the universe had a beginning, however pure chance event is too improbable since the universe is too complex.
It must fit with our background knowledge.
Science does put forward the idea that the universe had a beginning.
Arguments against evolution
CFR Tennant on the 'Anthropic principle' evolution depends on careful and balanced conditions made by God.
The intelligent design movement thinks evolution is false or an overstatement since there is little or no scientific proof.
James Sadowsky: You can believe in both God and evolution
Swinburn: Evolution requires explanation.
The theory of
survival of the fittest
puts forward the idea that there is
no need for an intelligent designer
. All living organisms came from their imperfect species an evolved using their
or as Richard Dawkins believe in a
random chance event
. Most importantly, evolution does
not have a purpose
but to maintain survival.
Since evolution has no purpose it suggests that there is no purpose in the world.
Quantum theory suggests there is random in the world.
This is only a theory as we cant see evolution happen, but there is proof like fossils. :footprints:
Richard Swinburne: evolution explains nothing, laws of science do not explain themselves.
Swinburne's Modern Design argument