History of Immigration (2017-2018 (Two Executive Orders on Immigration…
History of Immigration
Colonization of America occurred when the Europeans arrived in the United states. Once they got there they moved the Indians and gained land. This increased the flow of immigrant from Europe to America a lot. This was the main immigration story that set the stone for what would happen later to America with immigration.
Immagration Act of 1924
May 24, 1924
This was a ac that basicly limited the amount of epopel form European countries could come to the US. Thsi was made for the US security . They limtied the amount of poeple from each country to 2% of the US population. This greatly decreased the amoutn of immagration a favored some countries from Europe such as Norther and western eurpean countries.
The Bracero Program
August 4, 1942
Many of the American left to fight in World War 2, so the employees was decreasing so the US made a agreement with mexico. This allowed Mexican people to cross the border and work on us soil. However Mexican were abused so a protest occorred and more rights were given to them.
December 17, 1943
After the Chinese became good allies to the US in world war 2 this would repeal the Chinese exclusion act. Also allowed Chinese people living in the us to become naturalized citizens. However there was still a lot of Chinese racism in the country.
1917 Immigration Act
February 5, 2017
Reflecting the belief that white Americans needed to protect USA from foreign cultures and traditions, this act prohibited people from India, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East to come to the USA as immigrants.
It also made a requirement for all immigrants to be above the age of 16.
Displaced Persons Act of 1948
June 25, 1948
After world war two many people in Europe did not have a home and were displaced. But the US allowed 200,000 displaced people to come to the US. Many of them where Jewish which really affected the US.
Executive Order of 9066 and Japanese American Incarceration
February 19, 1942
Following the anti-Asians sentiments and bombing of the US Navy Base at Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 which called for forcible relocation and incarceration of Japanese Americans in USA.
Even though there was no evidence that proved Japanese people posed threat to USA, US officials still carried out the policy.
Naturalization Act of 1790
March 26, 1790
This act granted citizenship to only white people who have been living in USA for two years.
It did not give citizenship to the people from other races.
Alien and Sedation Laws
These were laws that basically gave the us government control of immigrants. This limited the ability of immigrants to vote and also gave the US government the ability to deport an immigrant that they deemed dangerous. Or immigrants countries that the us was war at .
End of the Transatlantic Trade of Enslaved People
The capture and enslavement of people from Africa and their forced migration to USA was banned by this law which took effect in 1808.
In spite of the law, this slave trade continues to go on as well as their forced relocation throughout USA.
Indian Removal Act
May 28, 1830
Throughout Colonial period of USA, white people implemented policies by which they seized the land and property of native people.
In May 1830, President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act made it possible for white settlers to force the native Americans to move to the west of Mississippi River.
One of the main reasons US government supported this act was to make more space for growing white settlers and immigrants in the country.
Some groups moved to the west while others resisted. Those who resisted often met with violence such as 4000 Cherokee people who were forced to march west which is also known as the Trail of Tears.
Chinese Exclusion Act
May 6, 1882
This was a law that prohibited from the Chinese from coming to the us. Anyone Chinese immigrant before November 1880 could stay in the country. However later there right had be been decreased more.
May 5, 1892
This added to the Chinese Exclusion act and added more. This law stopped the coming of Chinese people to the united states. Also Chinese people inside the US had to have certification to show they came legally. IF they didn't have it they were thrown in jail.
Operation Wet Back
With Mexican anti sentiments were created the us government mad this act which deported all the Mexican back to mexico. However they did not get any relief they had to start a brand new lfie there.
1965 Immigration and Nationality Act
October 3, 1965
Anti immigration activist groups became popular. So the us government passed this law to limit the amount of people form each country. They prioritized skilled workers over families.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952
June 27, 1952
This act sustained the national origins quotas that the Immigration Act of 1924 established as well as extended the scope of quotas in some ways.
It also set up a system of immigration that took into account factor like immigrant skills.
Refugee Relief Act of 1953
August 7, 1953
This act replaced Displaced Persons Act of 1948 as well as allowed for admission of more than 200,000 refugees from Europe. This act prioritized refugees fleeing communism in Eastern Europe.
Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962
This act focused on providing assistance to immigrants from the Western Hemisphere who faced persecution due to their race, religion, or political beliefs.
It specifically helped Communist Cuba and the political and economic effects of the Cuban Revolution. Other than that, no other groups of people benefited that much from this act.
The US Patriot Act
November 26, 2001
This was an act of racism. This basically gave the us government the ability to kick someone out of the country under the suspicion
of terrorism. They also kept a closer eye an Islamic students.
Homeland Security act
November 25, 2002
This was a act that created the department for homeland security. This department created new agencies to deal with immigration. Such a naturalization and citizenship section.
Enhanced Border Security and VISA Entry Reform Act
May 14, 2012
In response to the terrorist attack of 2001, Congress passed this act by which US took new measures against the immigrants such sharing their information or increasing border patrol agents.
Secure Fence Act
October 26, 2006
An increase in undocumented immigrants from Central America and Mexico led Congress to pass this act which provided for the construction of a fence along the US-Mexico border as well as financed other measures for securing and militarizing the border.
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Act
June 15, 2012
President Barack Obama announced a new program for undocumented young people who were brought to America when they were children. It granted permission to that group of people to live and work in USA.
DACA allowed this status to be renewed every two years. To be considered for this status,young people were required to live in USA for at least 5 years, have a clean criminal record, and be a student, veteran, or high school graduate.
In 2014, Obama extended the protections granted under the executive order to also include undocumented parents of undocumented young people.
US Response to the Global Refugee Crisis
US started to accept more refugee, raising the number form 70,000 in 2015 to 100,000 by 2017. This move came in response to global refugee crisis which was originated by conflicts in South Asia, Middle East, and parts of Africa.
It is the largest refugee crisis after World War 2 and US would accept at least 10,000 Syrian refugees as part of this movement.
1975 Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act
May 23, 1975
A result of the Vietnam War. which allowed more than 120,000 refugees to come to the USA. Other refugees were murdered, stuck into refugee camps, or fled into other countries.
Refugee Act of 1980
March 17, 1980
This act clarifies the definition of the refugee as people realized that the US needed a more refined policy for refugees and asylum seekers. Some people feared that flooding of refugees would threaten national security and the economy as well as the diversity of cultures and religions that the refugees would bring with them.
Immigration Reform and Control Act
November 6, 1986
The number of undocumented immigrants was increasing so the US government made it harder for undocumented people to come here. Employers who hired knowingly undocumented immigrants were arrested and border patrol was increased. However so did becoming a legal immigrant.
Immigration Act of 1990
November 29, 1990
This act reformed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which made new rules that prioritized reuniting immigrants with their families in USA, new provisions related to employment-based immigration, and a system of visas as well as the diversity lottery.
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act
September 30, 1996
Passed on behalf of undocumented immigrants who had jobs and were benefited from US social services. This act targeted undocumented immigrants as well as broadened the list of offenses that could result in immediate deportation of undocumented people. It gave US Attorney General extended powers to build fences along the US-Mexico border.
Two Executive Orders on Immigration Issued
January 25, 2017
Trump issued these 2 orders in his first month in office.
Enhancing Public Safety in US
Penalized cities that protect undocumented people by limiting how they enforce federal immigration laws.
Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements
Tightened US-Mexico border, called for a border wall and more detention facilities for undocumented people.
Revised Travel Ban Issued
March 6, 2017
A revised version of "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the US" which removed Iraq from the list of banned countries. The order made it clear that those with Visas would not be affected and undid the indefinite suspension of Syrian refugees.
"Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the US" issued
January 27, 2017
Also known as "Travel Ban" or "Muslim Ban" which stopped the admission of all refugees into US for 120 days including Syrian refugees and banned people from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen from entering US for 90 days.
DACA's End Date Announced
September 5, 2017
Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that DACA would end in March 2018, but, a number of court cases challenged the decision.
Order Ending Family Separation Issued
June 20 ,2018
In response to the intense opposition, President Trump signed an executive order detaining immigrant families should be kept together. The process of reuniting the families is still on-going.
Another Revised Travel Ban
September 24, 2017
The third version of "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the US" which now restricted people from Chad, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen.
Many people argued that the ban was discriminatory and some judges attempted to block the implementation of the order on the ground but Supreme Court will make the decision about it in June of 2018.
US Supreme Court Upholds the Travel Ban
June 26, 2018
The US Supreme Court issued a ruling on the legality of the travel ban. In a 5-4 vote, the Court upheld the September 2017 version of the ban.
The justices who voted to uphold it argued that Trump had the authority to make judgements about national security and immigration.
The judges who voted against the legality of the ban compared it to the past rulings that many people today agree are a shameful part of US history.
Family Separation Enforcement Announced
May 7, 2018
Trump administration may prosecute undocumented parents and separate them from their children in the process. Activists and politicians across the country criticized family separation and demanded an end for it.