Social Psychology Chapter 2 (Hypothesis & theories formulation…
Social Psychology Chapter 2
Hypothesis & theories formulation
:check: Not easy.
:check: If easy, its not necessarily true.
:check: Social psychologist - studies
Earlier theories & research.
:check: : Observe people & systematically record measurements.
:check:Aim : describe what a particular group of people/type of behavior is life.
:star: Ethnography - Attempt to try to understand group/culture, without imposing preconceived nations they might have (We judge without knowing them)
Underst. richness & complexity of group by observing it in action.
To minimize bias & distorted impression.
We need to establish "
:star: Archival analysis - examines the accumulated documents / archives, of a culture.
E.g : diaries, novel, suicide note & social media.
Limitations of observational method
:<3: Only describe.
:<3: Certain behavior are difficult to observe because occur in private.
:<3: How we describe things in different way.
:<3: Lack of reliability.
:<3: Personal bias of the observer.
:<3: Slow investigation.
1 more item...
Focus on Prediction
2 or more variables are systematically measured & the relationship between them is assessed.
i.e : The relationship between smoking & heart disease.
Relationship is measured by
: - Statical technique to predict onevariable from another.
Usually used in
Result are representative of the whole population.
Cannot define caused.
Does x relates to Y, or Y relates to X?
An investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested.
(the cause) is manipulated. i.e : changes
(the effect) is measured. i.e : result
Make sure nothing beside IV can affect DV
are controlled. i.e : Not Independent Variables but
could affect the DV
could be EV that not been controlled. i.e : Have affected the DV
Can be generalized to other situation and people
High in external validity
Low in external validity
The data are more valid.
-Easier to control
Question (hypothesis) can be answered (alia)
Hard to conduct (participate,surrounding)
Not naturally act because someone observe you (afifah)
The experimental method
Answering causal questions
Researcher randomly pick participant to different conditions
Make sure conditions are identical
Enable the making of causal inferences
Example of situation
Study the impact of drug on cancer.
IV - The dosage and the timing
DV - The impact the drug has on cancer
EV - The gender
CV - The surrounding
Ethical issues in Social Psychology(alia)
Not right to manipulate people such as Milgram experiment and Little Albert experiment
The British Psychological Society (BPS) and the American Psychological Association (APA) have provided an ethical framework for psychologists
Explain first to participant
Hide the true purpose of the experiment
Explain the experiment at the end
Protection From Harm
follows the ethical code put forth by the British Psychological Society.
Right to Withdraw
Partipate have right to withdraw from the experiment
Advantages of observation
:<3: Simplicity method of data collection.
:<3: Useful for framing hypothesis.
:<3: Greater accuracy.
:<3: An universal method. (very easily followed & accepted).
:<3: Observation is the only appropriate tool for certain cases.