The World in 1750 (By Christopher Liu) (Vocabulary (China (Dynasty: A…
The World in 1750 (By Christopher Liu)
The philosophy of the ethical beliefs founded by Confucius around the year 500 BC.
Inspired the institutional and tracesdental religious/belief system that structured the foundation of Chinese society.
These virtues have to be constantly practiced and cultivated.
Mandate of Heaven
A form of Divine Right: The Mandate stated that God, or some heavenly force, had placed him there to rule Earth on its behalf .
Step One: Emperor is given the Mandate of Heaven and establishes peace
Step Two: The government becomes corrupt and raises taxes
Step Three: The Emperor looses the Mandate of Heaven
Step Four: The country revolts and a new family takes over
If the Emperor and the government fell into corruption, losing sight of the good of the people, the dynasty lost the Mandate of Heaven, usually marked by revolution, war, invasion, or natural disasters.
If the Emperor looses the Mandate of Heaven, the country justifiably revolts and new family takes over, restoring peace.
The Emperor was given the God’s blessing as long as he worked for the good of the people, ruling justly and virtuously.
The practice of foot binding was incredibly painful for women, a process which repeatedly broke their bones and stunted their ability to walk.
Kept women from “straying from home”, compelling them to become more quiet and obedient by limiting their freedom.
Having unbound feet was a stigma of poverty or repulsiveness for women, so parents who wished their daughter to be married never had a choice.
Revolved around actions and ideas meant to serve the good of the people.
Officials were appointed by the Emperor
Focused on nurturing their physical needs and educating them through investments in books, public schools, and civil behavior.
The Qing dynasty ruled benevolently and kindly, treating their subjects as children in a symbiotic, familial relationship,
Any actions made by officials contradicting this behavior challenged the authority of the Emperor.
The Qing was the last of many dynasties to rule China
Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire between the years 1520 to 1566.
Brought empire to the height of its power.
Build mosques and religious buildings.
Turned Constantinople in a vast trade center
Promoted literature and the arts
Allowed religious freedom
Freed people who were unjustly imprisoned
Revised Ottoman laws
Allowed slaves to move up in social class based on a merit system
Improved the justice system
Built up the wealth of the empire
Strengthened the military
Expanded the empire into Central Europe, Africa, and Persia
Believed to have held the power of God.
Killed his son in rage of paranoia.
Declaration of Faith
Religion of Ottoman Empire
Other Religions in the Empire
Jews and Christians lived peacefully in the Empire.
Suleiman realized if he forced a certain religion onto other people, they might rebel.
People could worship their own religion as long as they were loyal to the Sultan.
Janissaries were sent to protect people of other religions within the Empire.
Had to pay slightly higher tax.
Forced conquered Christians to turn in their young and trained them to become soldiers.
The elite force of Suleiman's army were the Janissaries.
Soldiers were forced to convert to Islam
Used new military technology such as muskets and cannons
Sultan was at the top
Slaves could rise in status and prestige based upon merit.
People who were lazy or corrupt would be at the bottom of the social structure.
People are judged (and selected for jobs) based off of their character, talents, and personality.
Wealth, popularity, prestige, and social rank do not weight into the judgement of people when selected for jobs.
Slaves to the Sultan, forced to give sexual pleasure whenever he desired. Concubines were women.
Greatest power in Middle East (at the time)
Patriarchy: A system of government or society where men hold all the power.
Bureaucracy: A system of government where non-elected officials make the decisions.
Divine Right: An ruler's right to rule. (God placed them there)
Dynasty: A family of rulers who successively rule over a country/region.
Virtue: Moral Standards
Confucianism: The philosophy of the ethical beliefs founded by Confucians around the year 500 BC
Emperor: A ruler with absolute power.
Foot Binding: The use of bandages to compress a women's foot, a sign of beauty in China
Mandate of Heaven: The Chinese version of Divine Right
Dynastic Cycle: The theory describing the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties.
Sultan: A ruler of a Muslim country.
Islam: The religion of the Muslims
Caliph: Muslim ruler thought to be the successor of Muhammad.
Concubine: Sexual Slave (Women)
Nobility: To have high prestige or class in a specific social structure.
Absolute Monarchy: A system of government where one person rules completely.
Clergy: The body of people who preform religious duties and tasks
Labor: Physical, hard work
Racism: Discrimination based upon race
Convert: To change your beliefs or religion
Atlantic Slave Trade: The transportation of enslaved African people to white nations, guided along the triangular trade route touching the Americas, Europe, and Africa
Christianity: Religion based off of the teachings of Jesus Christ
Enlightenment: Intellectual movement in the 1600s and 1700s when thinkers tried to apply principles of reason and methods of science to all of society
Scientific Revolution: The rapid advances in European mathematics, politics, and science.
Philosopher: A person who studies or examines the depth of philosophy
Naturalism: Ideas or view points pertaining to the natural world.
Super Naturalism: Ideas or view points pertaining to the supernatural world.
Feminism: Advocacy for women's rights (equality)
Colonization (Latin America)
Viceroy: Stand in for the King
Viceroyalty: Political entity under the Spanish crown, ruled by a viceroy.
Transatlantic Triangular Trade: The Atlantic Slave Trade
Castas System: Latin American social hierarchy based upon race.
Colonization: The process of settling and establishing control over the area of indigenous people.
Rule was established by God (Divine Right)
Had the power of divine inspiration and extensive knowledge of Catholic faith.
Tried to establish laws so that nobles weren't taken away and let mass depopulation ravage the nation.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Economic Cycle and Dependence
Different nations started wars amongst one another, with those weapons, in order to capture more prisoners for slaves.
In order to dominate other villages, and acquire more slaves for trading, the nation needed guns.
This caused Africa to become dependent on the “white” nations because they depended on them for wealth and weapons.
The Kongo exchanged criminals and prisoners of war in exchange for weapons.
In order to get more guns, African nations sold more people as slaves, starting more wars to capture prisoners to be exchanged for weaponry. They also created ridiculous laws so more people would be convicted of crimes and sentences to slavery.
Brought by the Portuguese.
With the colonization of the Americas came the cultivation of cash crops. However, these crops were labor intensive so people looked to the Kingdom of the Kongo as a source of labor.
Only prisoners of war or criminals were sold as slaves.
Guns and weapons were traded for slaves and labor.
Long Term Affects
Millions of people were shipped off as slaves before the slave trade was abolished.
Most people taken were men so long term demographics were catastrophic.
Lost many skilled workers and fighters. Opened up the country to invasion.
Often times, nobles and people of high political power/intellectual prowess were sold as slaves. The Kongo lost many of its scholars.
The economy of Africa collapsed after the Slave Trade was banned because they relied on it for wealth.
The sudden influx of guns and tensions between European nations fuels warfare that continues to this day.
Dehumanization and Racism
The ideas promoted to justify the Slave Trade created lasting stigmas on the reputations of African American and black people.
Slavery Before the Atlantic Slave Trade
Indentured servitude and serfs. These people had limited terms, the ability to buy their freedom, the ability to rise to a position of power, own land, and even become part of their master’s family.
Europeans justified slavery by promoting ideas of racism. They believed African people to more animal like or mere cargo, claiming that they were biologically inferior, and therefor weren't entitled to human rights.
African people justified selling people by using the concept as a punishment for criminals and prisoners.
Brought by the Portuguese
The King and many nobles chose to convert, widely accepting Christianity throughout the nation.
One of the most successful nations in East Africa (at the time)
Before ideas of racism spread, the Kongo was a well respected nation.
Seen as an independent, Christian nation by other European nations, unique to other non European empires and nations.
Culturally, European nations and the Kongo were not dominating each other through oppression.
Treated with reverence and respect
Noble women could exercise some influence on politics.
Weren't acknowledged as political leaders.
The king ruled as an absolute monarchy and given the power to do so by Divine Right.
People should obey the King, regardless of how terrible he was, because he was placed there by God. They believed that it is God's will that those born subjects obey the King no matter what.
Nobles collected taxes and could refuse to share the profits with the King. They also preformed duties relating to laws and court.
The king played off against the interests of provincial and town institutions dominated by nobles. Because of this, the King wasn't as powerful as he seemed.
On the top was the King (the absolute monarchy) and below him was the clergy. Below them were the nobles and below them were the peasants and the poor.
Wealthy nobles and religious officials ruled over the common people.
King Louis the XIV
Believed that people should obey the King no matter what.
Believed that the obedience of subjects was just as important for the common people as the kings.
Believed a King should work hard because if the nation itself is prosperous, then the King will be too.
Believed that Kings should set moral and religious standards.
Almost all women in France were born poor, growing up without education
A women's worth and life was based off of her appearance.
Woman who were ugly had to marry poor artisans and conceive children she couldn't raise.
If a woman was born beautiful she was seen as a sexual object.
If a woman does not marry she dishonors her family.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Believed people were inherently good.
Believed that society and "bad people" corrupted others
Social Contract (1762)
People should have as much freedom (individually) as possible until that freedom infringes on somebody else's,
The Government was formed by the idea of Social Contract.
The idea was that the Social Contract was an agreement between the people and the government in which the people give up some of their power and rights to the government in return for safety.
However, if the government isn’t fulfilling it’s duty then people can “get rid of it” and reform it, taking their power back
The government has power because people consensually give them part of their power.
Saw that, while people were giving parts of their power to the government, the government (the ruler) was dominating their rights and freedom
Believed that a Social Contract would help address this by giving rights to the "general will" instead of one/one group of people making everyone equally important. That way, people retain as many of their natural rights as possible
Trusted his fellow citizens and saw them as equals.
Where we see this today
In our government. The purpose of our government is to protect its citizens and provide safety (for example organizing services such as the military, hospitals, and police) in exchange for limitations in the abilities of the common people.
People join together into communities to protect these rights in a natural state of freedom, equality, comfort, and independence.
The government is created to protect these rights. If the government infringes on these rights, then the people have the ability to reform the system.
Two Treatises of Government
Everyone is born with the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. (White Men)
Life: Freedom to live without fear of being killed
Property: Freedom to rightfully own things
Liberty: Freedom of action (within legal boundaries)
English Enlightenment Philosopher
Where we see this today
It's written into our Constitution! The right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Personal Life/ Reputation
Suffered from depression because men opposing her ideas publically branded her as crazy.
Believed herself to be even smarter than every male character she knew.
Women are created equal, neither gender is superior to the other.
Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
A person's natural rights of life, liberty, property, and government revolution apply to women too.
Women are not being treated equally in society and are not respected. That is not okay!
Women deserved to be educated.
If women were given education and physical freedom, they would be given the power to be the equals of men.
English Enlightenment Philosopher
Where we see this today
Advocates and protests for women's rights (abortion, birth control, rape, rape culture, victim shaming, wage gap, etc.)
People demeaning ideas of feminism (just like how men demeaned Mary's ideas)
The study of nature to figure out the natural world.
Encouraged experimentation and because of this, Europe made breakthroughs in scientific, political, and mathematical areas.
Began as the Dark Ages passed. People found information preserved by Islamic Empires and became curious.
All about "why?"
Present Day Affect
The ideas of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment era continually influence the foundational values and governments of modern countries (including the Declaration of Independence in the USA).
Contributed to breakthroughs in mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, politics, and government.
Changed the idea of how religion is the answer to the world.
People realized that their own reasoning could social problems.
People realized they could study the world through scientific inquiry.
Promoted the idea that people should make judgments based off of facts and not superstition.
Promoted the idea that the government is here to support and protect the people and not the other way around.
The Black Plague ravaged Europe and many educated individuals dies, loss of information.
Only the religious people could read (out of the people who survived the plague.
The Church used this opportunity to seize power.
The common people looked to the Church for answers and were often given responses relating to fantastical or religious explanations. (Super naturalism)
Began after the Spaniards defeated and conquered the Aztecs.
Showed their dominance and control by building religious structures on top of religious sites.
Instilled political order and exploited the resources of the surrounding land.
Wanted to exploit the wealth in Latin America such as gold, silver, and food stocks not found in European territory.
Brought different cultures together.
Culture is captured through New Spain's art and architecture
Exploited Indian labor
Hernan Cortes found people who were angry at the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan and traveled to the city.
Tried to convert the Aztecs to Catholicism
The efforts to convert Aztecs were bloody and violent.
Introduced epidemics and plagues to the Aztecs and indigenous people.
The unique Latin American social hierarchy based upon race and birthplace.
Spaniards born in Spain were at the top. Below them were the Spaniards born in the colonies or those of other European descent. Below them were the people who were half European and half Native American or African. Below them were the Africans and the Native American.
Slaves could buy their freedom if their service was needed to replace a job a white man would usually take. People had to treat them like they were white.
Because of this separation of race, people who were European (or generally whiter) were higher in social class in Latin America.
A person's or wealth or job also contributed to their social class.
Oftentimes, Indian nobility acquired Spanish nobility titles.
African individuals usually had more social status than Native Americans even though they were slaves.
Transatlantic Triangular Trade
Europeans brought trade products and guns to Africa for slaves, they take some of the slaves to the Americas for profit, and then receive exports from the Americas made by slaves.
The Triangular Trade was a huge benefit to the Europeans because they received income from selling slaves and also received slave built and cultivated crops/products from the Americas.
Contributed to the destruction of Africa because of slavery.
Vast network of trade routes from both Europe and Africa but also to Asia. (Connected to Pacific and Atlantic trade routes.)
The Kongo women with respect however they weren't acknowledged as political leaders.
Poor and uneducated, judged based off of their appearance.