Justifications used to label Muslims as violent after 9/11 (Anti-Muslim…
Justifications used to label Muslims as violent after 9/11
Anti-Muslim post 9/11
After 9/11, hate crimes against Muslims skyrocketed.
42% of Muslim families report bullying, vs. 20% for Protestant families (via NPR)
Creation of "us vs. them" narrative
Here is a protestor with a sign that reads "All I need to know about Islam, I learned on 9/11!"
Many people do not realize the difference between the many types of Muslim clothing, and how it differs from similar clothing from other cultures.
A common type of headwear is called a hijab
Hijabs are often confused with other types of wear, like the niqab, burka, or chador.
There are also many other religions that practice head coverings, but often times, Muslims are the only ones to be discriminated against (specifically, Muslims of color).
Here is a link to a Degrassi episode that includes issues regarding Muslims and a girl who wears a hijab. To see specifics, skip to 12:00, 17:45, then 20:30
For men, many wear different types of head wraps as well. However, there is a lot of confusion between Muslim and Sikh. Sikh men usually wear turbans like this one.
Muslim men sometimes do wear turbans of that style, but usually, they wear something like this. This is called a taqiyah, or skull cap. Although these are popular, headwear varies within countries and preferences.
There is also a difference between Arab and Muslim, which is a common misconception. In many places, most Arabs are not Muslim, and vice versa.
Here is an article that explains the difference
Here is an article describing hate crimes towards Sikh men, as they are grouped together with Muslims because they both wear types of turbans.
Here is an article that shows a rise in Islamophobia after the 2016 Presidential Election, and where a Muslim citizen compares the aftermath to 9/11.
Another article that shows some of the correlation between a rise in Islamophobia and Pres. Trump
Islamophobia is described as a fear, hatred, or prejudice against the Islamic religion or Muslims is general.
On September 11, 2001, two planes were hijacked and crashed into the Twin Towers, located in New York City, causing terror and over 3000 deaths. The two planes were hijacked by an Islamic terrorist group known as al-Qaeda.
Due to the terror of 9/11 being caused by an Islamic extremist group, our country has come to develop an overwhelming fear and hate towards people of this religion and also anyone who wears a head dress, also known as a hijab, whether they are Muslim or not.
We use this form of justification to label Muslims (and pretty much anyone who is seen wearing a head dress) as a terrorist, bad or scary person, someone who should not be trusted, and someone who poses a threat, to name a few.
The attached article gives examples of Americans believing that Islam isn't a real religion and Muslims don't have any constitutional rights.
Attached is a photo from The New York TImes article "Trump's Travel Ban is Upheld by the Supreme Court". It shows the effects of countries with a travel ban and without a travel ban and how that effected people obtaining visas.
Here's the link to the article.
This video, from BBC News, is about a man sharing his experience of verbal abuse as he was doing his afternoon prayers. We (as a society) would not give this kind of verbal abuse to Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, etc. as they performed their prayers, praying to a god they believe in.
Here is a picture of a hijab worn by a YouTuber, Hidaya Hijazi I chose to use an image of her since she represents popular culture, especially now since YouTube is so popular.
Here is a turban worn by Osama Bin Laden.
A Muslim is classified as anyone who follows the religion of Islam (Dictionary).
Muslims as Terrorists
Stereotype of the Middle Eastern Terrorist shown in Popular Culture
This terrorist stereotype is used as a prank in Jackass. By using it as a prank they make it seem as if this stereotype is just a joke and yet they are insinuating that Muslims are people to fear.
Utilizes stereotypes of Muslims as terrorists generated by 9/11 for the sake of entertainment
Jeff Dunham, a widely known comedian, dresses one of his puppets in a turban and proceeds to make terribly racist and not-so tasteful jokes about Middle Easterners, once again, portrayed as scary terrorists that we should be fearful of.
Muslim/Arab man Halloween costume.
Even well known celebrities such as the Kardashians use this religion as a costume.
Khloe Kardashian dressed in Muslim garb.
After the attack on 9/11 people felt scared that there would be another attack. So they looked for someone to blame.
"It's not just about the fear, though. It's about tying the fear into a story" (1)
"No matter the event, if it can be fit into the narrative, that in itself becomes the news — not the actual singular event. In that kind of reframing, if a Muslim person commits a crime, it's not just that crime; it's an attack on America" (1)
America created this narrative that Muslims are to fear. We created a sort of witch hunt in which we understood that someone was responsible and then it grew into these type of people are responsible.
"Trump signed an executive order suspending travel and immigration from Muslim-majority countries and barring nearly all refugees from entering the United States — and he did it in the name of national security." (1)
This travel ban was an option because of the narrative that was built. America looks at Muslims as terrorists and Trump was able to use that to enact this travel ban. This travel ban only continues to perpetuate the "violent Middle Eastern" stereotype.
This travel ban is referred to as "Executive Order 13769".
The definition of an act of terrorism refers to anything that causes fear or terror to a group of people. This act can be done by any person or group of people, no matter what their race, ethnicity, or religion.
However, since the 9/11 attack, most people associate terrorism with Muslim just because an Islamic terrorist group executed the attack.
This image shows most Americans depiction on violence and the stereotype each racial group holds.
As the image is hard to read, the far left side is a Muslim holding a gun that reads "Muslim Shooter = 1.3 billion Muslims held responsible". While a black shooter correlates to gang violence, a professional shooter equals a national hero, and a white shooter means they have a mental issue or are a lone wolf.
This image portrays a person associating all Muslims with the 9/11 attacks and is attempting to say they (Muslims) want to ruin "our way of life". Saying a whole country or everyone that follows a certain religion is trying to ruin or sabotage something is like outrageous. It's equally as crazy as saying "I saw a moldy grape today and now every grape I see it disgusting, moldy, and bad." It just doesn't make much sense, does it?
This image portrays all the blame we put on Muslims in an attempt to try and blame everything bad that has ever happened on someone else, particularly of a different religion or race.
Here we have a man holding a sign that says "NO MORE MUSLIMS".
Terrorist actions are portrayed differently in the media based on what a person looks like
Picture blown up so that you can see they are brown and linked to a Islamic or Muslim background or stereotype.
This shooter is immediately connected to ISIS and is boldly portrayed across the headline. No humanizing this shooter. Because he has a Muslim background, he is automatically a terrorist; his only mission in life to harm and kill Americans.
Journalist trying to humanize this white shooter
No picture of this shooter is shown. Feel no need to try and link a white man to terrorist actions.
When a white person is the person behind the terror, we often look for what was wrong with that SINGLE person. The media often tries to justify terrorist actions done by white people by claiming that individual has a mental disorder or they were bullied and this was the result. This statement can not be said for other racial groups, however, especially Middle Easterners.