Adriana Cardenas.M. Ch.19+27 (Viruses (Vocab. (Pathogen - An organism or…
Adriana Cardenas.M. Ch.19+27
Characteristics of "life"
Include the ability to reproduce, but only in living host cells and the ability to mutate, made of protein, coping generic info.
are not cells, have no cytoplasm or cellular organelles, no self replication.
Helical (Tobacco mosaic virus)
Genomes may consist of double-stranded DNA, or single-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA or single-stranded RNA.
Made up of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ---- Usually organized as a single linear or circular molecule.
: protein shell enclosing the viral genome.----built from a large number of protein subs-units called
The membranous envelope is sometimes present.
--helps infect their hosts.
--viral envelope derived from the membranes of the host cell.
--contain host cell phospholipids, membrane proteins. They also contain proteins and glycoproteins of viral origin.
Some viruses carry a few viral enzyme molecules within their capsids
:Complex capsids which are found among the viruses that infect bacteria.
A type of phage replicative cycle resulting in the release of new phages by lysis (and death) of the host cell.
: A phage that replicates only by a lytic cycle.
Entry of phage DNA and degradation of host DNA.
Synthesis of viral genomes and proteins
: A type of phage replicative cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage, is replicated with the chromosome, and does(not kill the host).
: A phage that is capable of replicating by either a lytic or lysogenic cycle.
Virus attaches to host cell and inserts its DNA
DNA of virus is Incorporated with host cell's DNA
Host cell reproduces with its own DNA and viral DNA.
: sends a message to the infections
Fights off pathogens, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait for your immune system to fight off the virus.
do not work
medicines to treat some viral infections.
Vaccines can help prevent you form getting many viral diseases.
Prions (proteins) tears to the tissues apart
Dangerous enough to destroy your cells.
Cannot be treated
Viruses are essential to the reguatlion of saltwater and freshwater ecosystems.
Most of these viruses are bacteriophages, which are harmless to plants and animals.
They infect and destroy the bacteria in aquatic microbial.
Double stranded RNA/DNA
Single stranded RNA/DNA
- :recycle: ecological interaction in which one organism benefits but the other in neither help or harmed.
CRISPS- Cas System
:recycle: ? - (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)...Immune sys. in bacteria; the protein that can identify and cut phage DNA, as a result, it defends the cell against a phage infection.
:recycle: ? - General term for the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ form those found in either parent.
- :recycle: a strand of DNA, having a spiral shape.
- ? A polyhedron having twenty faces.
:recycle: - A +/+ ecological interaction that benefits each of the interacting species.
:recycle: ? - An organism that carries out only fermentation or anaerobic respiration. Such organisms cannot use oxygen and n fact may be poisoned by it.
:recycle:? - An oriented movement toward or away form a stimulus.
:recycle:? - A transportable element that moves within a genome by mans of a DNA.
- :recycle: A organism that transmits pathogen form one host to another.
- affect digestive track, investigative problems.
- A widespread outbreak of a disease.
- The larger participant in a symbiotic relationship, other providing a home and food source for the smaller symbiotic.
- The limited number of species whose cells can be infected by a particular virus.
- A global epidemic
- A +/- ecological interaction in which one organism, the parasite, benefits by feeding upon another organism, the host, which is harmed; some parasites live within the host (feeding on its tissues), while others feed on the host's external surface.
- An organism or virus that causes disease.
- An infectious agent that is a manifolded version of a normal cellular protein.
- A viral genome that is permanently inserted into a hos t genome.
- An RNA virus that replicates by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer causing viruses.
- An enzyme encoded by certain virus (retrovirus) that use RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
- The smaller participant in a symbiotic relationship, living in or on the host.
- A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that simulates a host's immune system to mount defense against the pathogen.
-An infectious particle, smaller than a virus, that consists solely of a strand of RNA and is capable of causing disease in plants.
Characteristics of "life"
are cells, has cytoplasm and cell-membrane, ribosomes (protein), DNA (circular strand)
: Nucleus, membrane band, organelles (mitochondria / chloroplast)
: A short, hairlike appendage of a prokaryotic cell that helps it adhere to the substrate or to other cells.
: A dense and well-defined layer of polysaccharide or protein that surrounds the cell wall and is sticky, protecting the cell and enabling it to adhere to substrates or other cells.
Internal organization: no nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles.
: a long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion.
Cell Wall: protects the cell & prevents it form bursting in hypothetical environment.
Circular chromosome: often accompanied by smaller rings of DNA called plasmids.
: structure that links one cell to anoter at the start of conjugation; (sex pilus)
Gram positive bacteria
: thick wall of peptidoglycan. (purple)
: thin lat=yer of peptidoglycan. (pink)
Cell walls contain peptidoglycan, a polymer composed of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides.
Some bacteria develop resistant cells (endospores) when they lack water or essential nutrients.
do not have peptidoglycan
: a non-membrane-enclosed region in a prokaryotic cell where its chromosomes is located.
No nucleoid membrane
:Method of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms in which the cell grows to roughly double its size and then divides into two cells.
Generic info. is copied
Process by which a cell in culture acquires the ability to divide indefinitely, similar to the division of cancer cells.
Process in which phages (viruses carry bacteria DNA from one bacterial cell to another.
The direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
- An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organism or substances derived from other organisms. uses energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules form inorganic ones.
- An organism that harness light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide.
- An organism that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances and needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source.
- An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived form them.
- An organism that uses light to generate ATP but must obtain carbon in organic form.
- An organism that requires organic molecules for both energy and carbon.
: keeps bacterium form building a cell wall. (Penicillin)
If it is unable to build, then proteins cant survive
There are several different types of antibiotics available and your doctor needs to take into account various different factors when choosing which one to prescribe to treat an infection. These include where the infection is in the body and the type of bacteria is causing it.
Damages enough to destroy you cells
Prions (proteins) tears the tissue apart
Cannot be treated
Bacteria help degrade dead animals, plants and bring valuable nutrients back to Earth.
Some species also help clean harmful pollution out of the environment in a process called
- The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen ( N2) to ammonia (NH3). Biological nitrogen fixation is carried out by certain prokaryotes, some of which have mutualistic relationships with plants.
- A surface-coating colony of one or more species of prokaryotic that engage in metabolic cooperation.
- Eubacteria ( true bacteria) that obtain energy through photosynthesis, and produces oxygen.
- A toxic component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria that is released only when the bacteria die.
- A toxic protein that is secreted by a prokaryote or other pathogen and that produces specific symptoms, even if the pathogen is no longer present.
F and R plasmids
- set / resisted
- An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration fermentation if oxygen is not present.
- (extreme halophile) an organism that lives in highly saline environment, such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea.
- a specialized cell that engages in nitrogen fixation in some filamentous cyanobacteria; (heterocyte).
- An organism that produces methane as a wast product of the way obtains energy. All known metha-nogens are in domain Archaea.
- A type of polymer in bacterial cell walls consisting of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides.
- A small, circular, double stranded DNA molecule that carries accessory genes separate form those of a bacterial chromosome. can be fond in yeasts.
- A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on a bacterial chromosome.
- An endonuclease that recognizes and cuts DNA molecules foreign to a bacterium (such as phage genomes).
- An ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live thorougher in direct and intimate contact.
- (extreme thermophile) an organism that thrives in hot environment (often 60-80 degrees C or hotter).
- a bacteria infection
- bacterium that causes the condition of sore throat that is best treated with antibiotics.