Major Components of Cells: (Plasma Membrane: allows some things to pass…
Major Components of Cells:
: consists of cytosol and organelles
a semitransparent fluid where organelles are found. Nutrients are absorbed in this fluid. Together with organelles it makes up the cytoplasm.
"little organs" that perform special functions inside the cytosol to help support the cell.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
No ribosomes attached. Function: site of lipid, steroid hormone synthesis as well as lipid metabolism and drug detox. Location: attached to Rough ER.
Membranous sacs containing enzymes. Function: breaks down old organelles and digests. Location: move through out the cytoplasm.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
Ribosomes are attached to membranous system. Function: Makes proteins and cell membranes. Location: Next to the Nucleus.
rod like, double membranous structure. Function: synthesizes ATP Location: outer rim of cytoplasm near Smooth ER.
dense particles consisting or ribosomal RNA and protein. Funsction: Sites of protein syntheses. Located: free or attached to rough ER.
Function: breaks down toxic substances Location: found abundantly in the liver.
Smallest fiber composed of protein actin. Function: can produce movement breaks down and builds up allows cell to change shape. Location: Near plasma membrane.
protein fibers Location: connected to desmosomes. Function: resists tension
structure of proteins, has a lumen. Location: in the cytoplasm. Function: support cells provides cell shapes builds up and breaks down.
made up of microtubules Location: in cytoplasm. Function: organizes microtubules during mitosis to for spindle and asters.
stack of flattened membranes. Location: closer to ER Function: receives, modifies, sorts, packages proteins.
surrounded by nuclear envelope it is similar to the plasma membrane Function: transmits genetic information and provides instruction for protein synthesis. Location: the center of a cell.
allows some things to pass through. Function: protects cell by maintaining homeostasis and blocking particles that can damage the cell from entering.
Located: throughout the plasma membrane Function: allows particles to transport through the plasma membrane and acts as a messenger transmitting information inside to the cell.
Consists of hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic tail . Two layers bind together called the phospholipd bilayer to form the plasma membrane.
The plasma membrane has selective permeability meaning some substances are able to move in and out of the membrane freely while other need proteins to transport them across.
Simple Diffusion (Osmosis):
movement of a substance down a concentration gradient. Does not require cellular energy.
Movement of a substance down a concentration gradient. Does not require cellular activity, but does need a facilitator (protein).
Movement of a substance against the concentration gradient. Does require cellular energy and a protein.
taking up or engulfing particles and bringing them into the cell.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis:
Selective and uses proteins to choose what particles it allows into the cell.
Cell eating, engulfs smaller, dying cells by stretching the entire cell around the body of the other cell. It moves much further than when it forms small vesicles.Breaks down and uses parts of the dying cell.
cell drinking, nonselective. Whatever falls into the vesicle which forms in the plasma membrane is taken in to the cell.
hormones and mucus and other products are secreted outside of the cell. they are released through vesicles . Vesicle snares bind together to move and attach to the plasma membrane in order to release products from inside the cell.
The control center of a cell, contains deoxyriboncleic acid which builds proteins and is necessary for reproduction. It is made up of nuclear envelope, nucleoli, and chromatin.
A small round body where ribosomes are made.
scattered throughout the nucleus forms chromosomes when the cell undergoes cell division.
a double membrane barrier allowing some substances to pass through.