Electricity and Magnetism (Electricity (Materials can become electrically…
Electricity and Magnetism
"Induction can build a charge by changing the position of electrons"
ex. rubbing a balloon on your head, then sticking the balloon to the wall.
Materials can become electrically charged
the area surrounding a particle that is capable of exerting push or pull with electric charge.
(property) one object exerting force onto another without touching it; push and pull.
If an atom has an unequal amount protons and electrons, it has electric charge
same charge = repel, opposite charge = attract
"is a buildup of electric charge in an object caused by the presence of many particles with the same charge"
Charging by contact
if two uncharged objects of certain materials touch, electrons move between them and one gains a charge.
occurs when a material's electrons are more attracted to another one's.
Charging by induction
buildup of charge without direct contact
produces temporary static charge
Charges can move from one place to another
Static charges have potential energy
"Once it is built up, charge can stay where is it indefinitely. However, charge can also move to a new location."
attraction or repulsion are what moves charge
Electric Potential Energy
"Potential energy is stored energy an object may have because of its position"
energy from where a charged particle is in an electric field
"the amount of electric potential energy per unit change at a certain position in an electric field."
measured in volts
1 volt = one joule per coloumbe
some electric potential energy is used when a charge is used
Moving charge transferring energy is displayed in when something is shocked
shock happens because when two objects get closer together, the electric potential energy between them increases.
lightning is an escalated version of the shock that occurs between a hand and a doorknob. It is high-energy static discharge
Charge Separation- particles collide, making charges, positive particles go up, negative go down
Charge Buildup- induction makes negative charged particles repel the electrons on the ground, making them positive
Static Discharge- electric potential/voltage builds up enough and charge gets strong enough, the negative charge is released. The discharge creates the flash and sound.
Materials affect charge movement
Materials that allow charge to run through them easily
iron,steel, copper, and aluminum
do not really allow charge to go through
materials with practically no resistance at extremely low temperatures
"Grounding means providing a harmless, low-resistance path- a ground- for electricity to follow"
Used to protect buildings from lightning damage
Electric Resistance= how easily a charge can move through something
Electrical resistance is measured in Ohms
Insulators have higher resitance
Also depends on amount and shape of material
Can take advantage to make electrical charges work
materials with low resistance have little 'wasted' energy from this
Electric Current is a flow of charge
Electric charge can flow continuously
Def: flow of charge
Characteristics: electricity used to supply energy in homes, schools, offices, etc.
Current, Voltage, and Resistance
charge can only flow if it has a path from a point of higher potential to one of lower potential
charge flow is measures in amperes.
1 amp= 1 coulomb per second
Relationship between volts, ohms, and amps
Volts, ohms, and amps are all measured with a multimeter
Electric cells supply electric current
"Produces electric energy using the chemical or physical properties of different materials"
produce energy through chemical reactions
made with two strips of different materials suspended in electrolyte
What batteries are made of
Chemical reactions that can be reversed inside the cell
Produce energy until 1+ chemicals are used up
Made from materials that absorb energy from the sun
produce energy by using the sun